Class A vs Class B vs Class C Shares, Explained

Class A vs Class B vs Class C Shares, Explained

Broadly speaking, Class A, Class B, and Class C shares are different categories of company that have different voting rights and different levels of access to distributions and dividends. Companies may use these tiers so that certain key shareholders, such as founders or executives, have more voting power than ordinary shareholders. These shareholders also may have priority on the company’s profits and assets, and may have different access to dividends.

Not all companies have alternate stock classes. And what can make share categories even more complicated is that while the classifications are common, each company can define their stock classes, meaning that they can vary from company to company. That makes it even more important for investors to know exactly what they’re getting when they purchase a certain type of stock. Understanding how different share classes typically differ can help when making investment decisions or analyzing business news.

Key Points

•   Class A, Class B, and Class C shares are different categories of company stock with varying voting rights and access to dividends.

•   Companies may use different share classes to give certain shareholders more voting power and priority on profits.

•   Share classes can vary from company to company, making it important for investors to understand the specific terms and differences.

•   Class A shares generally have more voting power and higher priority for dividends, while Class B shares are common shares with no preferential treatment.

•   Class C shares can refer to shares given to employees or alternate share classes available to public investors, with varying restrictions and voting rights.

Why Companies Have Different Types of Stock Shares

When a company goes public, they are selling portions of their company, known as stocks, to shareholders.

Shareholders own a portion of the company’s assets and profits and have a say in how the company is governed. To mitigate risk and retain majority control of the company, a company can restrict the amount of stock they sell and retain majority ownership in the company. Or they can create different shareholder classes with different rights.

By creating multiple shareholder classes when they go public, a company can ensure that executives maintain control of the company and have more influence over business decisions. For example, while ordinary shareholders, or Class B shareholders, may have one vote per share owned, individuals with executive shares, or Class A shares, may have 100 votes per share owned. Executives also may get first priority of profits, which can be important in the case of an acquisition or closure, where there is only a finite amount of profit.

Different stock classes can also reward early investors. For example, some companies may designate Class A investors as those who invested with the company prior to a certain time period, such as a merger. These investors may have more votes per share and rights to dividends than Class B investors. A company’s charter, perspective, and bylaws should outline the differences between the classes.

Class differentiation has become more critical in creating a portfolio in recent years because investors have access to different classes in a way they may not have had access in the past. For example, mutual funds frequently divide their shares into A, B, and C class shares based on the type of investor they want to attract.


💡 Quick Tip: Before opening an investment account, know your investment objectives, time horizon, and risk tolerance. These fundamentals will help keep your strategy on track and with the aim of meeting your goals.

The Different Types of Shares

Just like there are different types of stock, there are different types of shareholders. Because different stock classes have such different terms, depending on the company, investors may use additional terminology to describe the stock they hold. This can include:

Preferred shares

Investors who buy preferred shares may not have voting rights, but may have access to a regular dividend that may not be available to shareholders of common stock.

Common shares

Sometimes called “ordinary shares,” common shares are stocks bought and measured on the market. Owners have voting rights. They may have dividends and access to profits, though they may come after other investors, such as executive shareholders and preferred shareholders have been paid.

Nonvoting shares

These are typically offered by private companies or as part of a compensation package to employees. Companies may use non voting shares so employees and former employees don’t have an outsize influence in company decision-making, or so that power remains consolidated with the executive board and outside shareholders. Some companies create a separate class of stock, Class C stock, that comes without voting rights and that may be less expensive than other classes.

Executive shares

Typically, these shares are held by founders or company executives. Their stock may have outsize voting rights and may also have restrictions on the ability to sell the shares. Executive shares usually do not trade on the public markets.

Advisory shares

Often offered to advisors or large investors of a company, these shares may have preferred rights and do not trade on public markets.
Recommended: Shares vs. Stocks: Differences to Know

Get up to $1,000 in stock when you fund a new Active Invest account.*

Access stock trading, options, auto investing, IRAs, and more. Get started in just a few minutes.


*Customer must fund their Active Invest account with at least $25 within 30 days of opening the account. Probability of customer receiving $1,000 is 0.028%. See full terms and conditions.

What Are Class A Shares?

While the specific attributes of Class A shares depend on the company, they generally come with more voting power and a higher priority for dividends and profit in the event of liquidation. Class A shares may be more expensive than Class B shares, or may not be available to the general public.

Many companies can have different stock tiers that trade at different prices. For instance, Company X may have Class A stock that regularly trades at hundreds of thousands of dollars while its Class B stock may trade for hundreds of dollars per share. Class B stockholders may also only have a small percentage of the vote that a Class A stockholder has. And while Class A stockholders might be able to convert their shares into Class B shares, a Class B shareholder may not be able to convert their shares into Class A shares.

Many of the tech companies that have gone public in recent years have also used a dual-share class system.

In some cases, shareholders are not allowed to trade their Class A shares, so they have a conversion that allows the owner to convert them into Class B, which they can sell or trade. Executives may also be able to sell their shares in a secondary offering, following the IPO.


💡 Quick Tip: Distributing your money across a range of assets — also known as diversification — can be beneficial for long-term investors. When you put your eggs in many baskets, it may be beneficial if a single asset class goes down.

What Are Class B Shares?

Often companies refer to their Class B shares as “common shares” or “ordinary shares,” (But occasionally, companies flip the definition and have Class A shares designated as common shares and Class B shares as founder and executive shares). Investors can buy and sell common shares on a public stock exchange, where, typically, one share equals one vote. Class B shares carry no preferential treatment when it comes to dividing profits or dividends.

What Are Class C Shares?

Some companies also offer Class C shares, which they may give to employees as part of their compensation package. These shares may have specific restrictions, such as an inability to trade the shares.

Class C shares also may also refer to alternate share classes available to public investors. Often priced lower than Class A shares and with restrictions on voting rights, these shares may be more accessible to larger groups of investors. But this is not always the case. For example, Alphabet has Class A and Class C shares. Both tend to trade at similar prices.

The difference between Class C and common stock shares can be subtle. It’s important to note that these stock classes vary depending on the company. So doing research and understanding exactly which type of shares you’re buying is key before you commit to purchasing a certain class of stock.

Recommended: Investing for Beginners: Basic Strategies to Know

Class A vs Class B vs Class C Shares

What Are Dual Class Shares?

Companies that offer more than one class of shares have “dual class shares.” This is a fairly common practice, and some companies offer dual class shares that automatically convert to a common share with voting privilege at a set period of time.

These may be startups who go public through IPO and do not want public investors to have a say in the company’s decision-making. There has been controversy about companies offering two share classes of stock to the public, with detractors concerned that multiple share classes may lead to governance issues, such as reduced accountability. But others argue that multiple share classes can be an asset for a public company, leading to improved performance.

The Takeaway

Class A, Class B, and Class C shares have different voting rights and different levels of access to distributions and dividends. It can be difficult to determine which investment class is the best option for you if you’re deciding to invest in a public company that offers multiple share classes. Beyond market price, understanding how the stock will function in your overall portfolio as well as your personal investing philosophy can help guide you choose the best share class for you.

For example, investors who may be looking for shorter-term investments may choose a stock class without voting privileges. Other investors who want to be active in corporate governance may prefer share classes that come with voting rights. And some investors may be looking for stocks that provide guaranteed dividends, which may guide their decision toward one class of shares.

Ready to invest in your goals? It’s easy to get started when you open an investment account with SoFi Invest. You can invest in stocks, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), mutual funds, alternative funds, and more. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

For a limited time, opening and funding an Active Invest account gives you the opportunity to get up to $1,000 in the stock of your choice.


Photo credit: iStock/g-stockstudio

SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Claw Promotion: Customer must fund their Active Invest account with at least $25 within 30 days of opening the account. Probability of customer receiving $1,000 is 0.028%. See full terms and conditions.

SOIN0523121

Read more
What Is Mean Reversion and How Can You Trade It?

What Is Mean Reversion and How Can You Trade It?

Mean reversion is a mathematical concept which holds that over time statistical measurements return to a long-run normal. In investing, mean reversion holds that while a market or an asset may go up and down in the short-term, over time, it returns to its long-term trend.

If traders expect a market to revert to the mean, they can use that expectation to inform their strategy going forward.

Key Points

•   Mean reversion is a mathematical concept that states assets tend to return to their long-term trends over time.

•   Traders may use mean reversion to inform their strategies and expect assets to return to their historical behaviors.

•   Mean reversion applies not only to individual stocks, but also to sectors, commodities, and foreign currencies.

•   Implementing a mean reversion strategy requires identifying patterns and timing the reversion correctly.

•   Mean reversion strategies depend on regularities staying consistent, and there are risks if structural shifts occur in the market or economy.

What Is Mean Reversion?

When stocks revert to the mean, their returns or other characteristics match what they’ve been over a longer period of time than the recent past. This can mean that a stock that becomes highly volatile may revert back to being less volatile; a stock that becomes quite expensive (meaning its price far outpaces its earnings) can become cheap; and, quite importantly, the other way around. Mean reversion can work in both directions.

The mean reversion concept not only applies to individual shares, but also to whole sectors of the economy or of the stock market, like, say, consumer product companies or pharmaceutical companies or any other chunk of the market that shares enough with each other to be classed together. Alternative assets, such as commodities or foreign currencies can also revert to the mean.

The theory applies to more than just prices, the volatility of a given asset can mean revert, which can matter for trading and pricing more exotic financial products like options and other derivatives.


💡 Quick Tip: Before opening any investment account, consider what level of risk you are comfortable with. If you’re not sure, start with more conservative investments, and then adjust your portfolio as you learn more.

Mean Reversion Strategies

With any generality or principle of the market comes the obvious question: Is there a strategy here? Can this be traded? Mean reversion trading is a strategy based on reversion to the mean happening, basically that stocks or some asset will return to its typical, long-run historical behavior.

Actually working out a mean reversion strategy is not as simple as thinking a certain stock is out of whack and waiting for things to get back to normal, it requires the ability to flag patterns to make an educated guess about when mean reversion will happen.

After all, if you just know that a stock is going to revert to the mean, you can still pile up large losses or miss out on big gains if you can’t time the reversion correctly — go too early and you’ll have to eat the stock being the “wrong” price before reversion to the mean happens, go too late and the gains have already evaporated as the change in price or returns has already occurred.

The Risks of Mean Reversion Strategy

Mean reversion strategies depend on statistical and historical regularites staying, well, regular. There are some that are pretty well validated, although with sharp and scary exceptions, like that stocks tend to go up over time and outperform other asset classes. But mean reversion involves certain relationships between stocks and assets staying true over time.

In some cases, mean reversion never occurs. Companies or sectors can have continually growing returns over a long period of time if there’s some kind of structural shift in the economy or market in which they operate. This can mean that returns increase over time or stay quite high.

This can happen for a few reasons. A company could gain or lose a dominant position in a given market, technological changes can advantage certain firms and disadvantage others, such that returns move permanently (or at least close enough to permanently for a given investment strategy) to a higher level and lower to another. Or there could be a global pandemic that permanently changes the way that companies do business, or long-run inflation that impacts profitability.

How to Implement a Mean Reversion Strategy

There are some basic statistical and financial tools to help create mean reversion strategy. As always, active trading and trying to time the market is risky and sometimes the whole market moves up and down and that can swamp whatever strategy you might have for an individual stock or sector.

Part of implementing a mean reversion strategy is getting a sense of stock trends or a trend trading strategy, whether past movement in a stock up or down is indicative of continuing in that direction.

This can involve trying to discern bullish indicators for stocks, giving you a sense of when stock returns are likely to go up. Often traders combine this strategy with forms of technical analysis, including the use of candlestick patterns.

Recommended: Important Candlestick Patterns to Know

Alternatively, you will need to have a sense of when a stock is underperforming in order to profit from buying it before it reverts to the mean upwards.

Factors in Creating a Mean Reversion Strategy

There are many factors that institutional and retail investors need to consider when devising a mean reversion strategy.

Determining the Mean

In this case, you’ll need to think about what period of time you are using to determine a stock or sector’s “normal” or “average” behavior. This matters because it will determine how long you decide to hold a stock or when you plan to sell it before or after the reversion to the mean occurs.

Timing

To execute a mean reversion strategy, you have to know when a stock’s price movement is sufficient to execute the trade. It helps to determine this point in advance.

Recommended: Understanding Pivot Points for New Investors

Determine the Bounds

What is the “normal” behavior, whether it’s price-to-equity ratio, volatility, or some other metric you’re looking at. To determine whether something is far beyond its mean, either high or low, you need a good sense of its normal range.

Recommended: Support and Resistance: A Beginner’s Guide

Qualitative Factors

Mean reversion and trading reversion to the mean is, of course, a quantitative endeavor. You need to compile statistics and make projections going forward in order to implement the strategy. But you also need to know what’s going on in the “real world” beyond the statistics.

If something is driving prices or volatility or some other metric higher or lower that’s likely to persist over time, mean reversion may not be a great bet. If, however, there’s something truly transient that’s the catalyst for large moves up and down that will then revert to the mean, then maybe the strategy is more likely to work.

Exit Strategy

As with most investments, it’s helpful to have an exit strategy determined ahead of time. This can help you limit your losses in the case that the asset ultimately does not revert to the mean.


💡 Quick Tip: Did you know that opening a brokerage account typically doesn’t come with any setup costs? Often, the only requirement to open a brokerage account — aside from providing personal details — is making an initial deposit.

The Takeaway

Mean reversion refers to an asset’s tendency to stick to typical value increases over time. Again, while volatility may play a role in short-term price or value changes, most assets will follow a long-term appreciation line, and despite short-term rises or falls in price, they’ll likely revert to the mean.

Traders who follow mean reversion strategies assume that a specific stock or sector will return to its long-term characteristics. The strategy can be helpful when determining an investing strategy for either individual assets or for a market, overall.

Ready to invest in your goals? It’s easy to get started when you open an investment account with SoFi Invest. You can invest in stocks, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), mutual funds, alternative funds, and more. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

For a limited time, opening and funding an Active Invest account gives you the opportunity to get up to $1,000 in the stock of your choice.


Photo credit: iStock/LaylaBird

SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Claw Promotion: Customer must fund their Active Invest account with at least $25 within 30 days of opening the account. Probability of customer receiving $1,000 is 0.028%. See full terms and conditions.

SOIN0723050

Read more
businessman on smartphone

Guide to Calculating EPS and Why It Matters

Earnings per share (EPS) tells investors a company’s ability to produce income for shareholders, and relates to its profitability. To calculate EPS, investors can use a ratio that takes a company’s quarterly or annual net income and divide it by the number of outstanding shares of stock on the market.

Knowing a stock’s earnings per share can be a valuable portfolio benchmarking tool. Think of EPS as GPS for where a public company is on the value map, based on how profitable it has been. Further, knowing an investment’s EPS gives investors — and portfolio managers — a good indicator of a stock’s performance over a specific period of time and its potential share price performance in the near future.

Key Points

•   Earnings per share (EPS) is a ratio that measures a company’s ability to generate income for shareholders.

•   EPS is calculated by dividing a company’s net income by the number of outstanding shares of stock.

•   EPS is a valuable tool for benchmarking a company’s profitability and assessing its potential share price performance.

•   Basic EPS includes all outstanding stock shares, while diluted EPS considers additional assets like convertible securities.

•   EPS may help investors evaluate a company’s financial health, make investment decisions, and assess risk.

What Is Earnings Per Share (EPS)?

The starting point for any conversation about the EPS ratio is the earnings report companies issue to regulators, shareholders, and potential investors. Earnings reports play a major role, if not the starring role, during earnings season.

Publicly traded companies must, by law, report their earnings quarterly and annually. Earnings represent the net income a company generates (after taxes and after expenses are deducted), along with an estimate of what profits or losses can be expected going forward.

Typically, investment analysts, money managers and investors look at earnings as a major component of a company’s profit potential, with earnings per share a particularly useful measurement tool when gauging a company’s financial prospects.

While a company’s earnings call represents a publicly traded company’s revenues, minus operating expenses, earnings per share is different.

EPS indicates a firm’s earnings for investors, divided by the company’s number of remaining shares. Earnings per share is perhaps most optimal when comparing EPS rates of publicly traded firms operating in the same industry.

It is likely not, however, the only investment measurement tool when researching stocks and funds. Other key indicators, like share price, market share, market capitalization, dividend growth, and historical performance may also be added to the investment assessment mix. In all, though, it’s an important tool that can help determine the investing risk at play when making investing decisions.

If you’re wondering how to find earnings per share, investors can find a company’s quarterly and yearly EPS by visiting the firm’s investor relations page on its website or by plugging in the stock’s ticker symbol on major business and finance media platforms.


💡 Quick Tip: Before opening an investment account, know your investment objectives, time horizon, and risk tolerance. These fundamentals will help keep your strategy on track and with the aim of meeting your goals.

Basic and Diluted EPS

When companies report earnings per share, they may do so in two forms: basic EPS or diluted EPS. Each has key distinctions that investors should know about. Basic EPS is a good barometer of a firm’s financial health, while diluted EPS represents a deeper dive into a company’s financial metrics and its use of alternative assets like convertible securities.

Basic

Basic earnings per share, or basic EPS, includes all of a publicly traded company’s outstanding stock shares.

Diluted

Diluted earnings per share, or diluted eps, includes all of a company’s outstanding stock shares, plus its investable assets, like stock options, stock warrants, and other forms of convertible investments tied to a company’s financial performance that could become common stocks one day.

One big takeaway for both EPS models is that any major deviation between basic and diluted EPS calculations should be considered a warning sign to investors, as it indicates that a company’s use of convertible securities is complicated and still in flux.

That scenario may indicate that the company isn’t in an ideal position to provide accurate share value to the investing public at a given time.

Why Is EPS Important to Investors

EPS calculations are not only a snapshot of a company’s profit performance, but they can also be used to evaluate a company’s stock price going forward. Even a moderate increase in EPS may indicate that a company’s profit potential is on the upside, and investors may take that as a sign to buy the company’s stock.

Conversely, a small decrease in a company’s EPS from quarter to quarter may trigger a red flag among investors, who could view a downward EPS trend as a larger profit issue and shy away from buying the company’s stock.

In short, the higher the EPS, the more attractive that company’s stock generally is to investors. But the higher a stock’s EPS, the more expensive its shares are likely to be.

Once investors have an accurate EPS figure, they can decide if a stock is priced fairly and make an appropriate investment decision.

What Is Considered a Good EPS Ratio?

There’s no hard and fast figure to point to when trying to determine a good EPS ratio. It’s perhaps better practice to look, in general, for a higher number. Context is important, too, because whether an EPS is good may depend on the expectations surrounding it.

Companies grow at different rates, and some are in different stages of growth than others. With that in mind, you might expect a different EPS for, say, a tech startup than you would for a decades-old auto manufacturer. So, there are differences and contexts to take into consideration.

But again, it may be best to look for a high number — or, to do some research to figure out what analysts and experts are looking for in terms of a specific company’s EPS. Again, this can all help you determine whether a stock is right for your portfolio and strategy in accordance with your tolerance for risk.


💡 Quick Tip: How to manage potential risk factors in a self directed investment account? Doing your research and employing strategies like dollar-cost averaging and diversification may help mitigate financial risk when trading stocks.

Earnings Per Share Ratio Considerations

Investors should prepare to dig deeper and examine what factors influence EPS figures. These factors are at the top of that list:

•   EPS numbers can rise or fall significantly based on earnings’ rise or fall, or as the number of company shares rises or falls.

•   A company’s earnings may rise because sales are surging faster than expenses, or if company managers succeed in curbing operations costs. Additionally, investors may get a “false read” on EPS if too many company expenses are shed from the EPS calculation.

•   A company’s number of outstanding shares may fall if a company engages in significant stock share buybacks. Correspondingly, shares outstanding may jump when a firm issues new stock shares.

•   A company’s profit margins are also a big influencer on EPS. A company that is losing money usually has a negative EPS number. (Then again, that may send a wrong signal to investors. The company could be on the path to profits, and that trend may not show up in an EPS calculation.)

•   A price to earnings ratio is another highly useful metric to evaluate a stock’s share growth potential. Investors can find a P/E ratio through a proper calculation of EPS (“P” is the price per share; “E” refers to EPS), though it’s easy to look up a P/E ratio on any site that aggregates stock information.

EPS can be reported for each quarter or fiscal year, or it can be projected into the future with a forward EPS.

How to Calculate EPS

The EPS formula is fairly simple, and it can be used in a couple of different methods, too. The most common way to accurately gauge an EPS figure is through an end-of-period calculation.

EPS Formula

The EPS formula is a company’s net income, minus its preferred dividends, divided by the number of shares outstanding. It looks like this:

EPS = (net income – preferred dividends) / outstanding shares

EPS is perhaps usually calculated using preferred dividends, but it can be calculated without them, too. Here are a couple of examples:

Example With Preferred Dividends

Investors can calculate EPS by subtracting a stock’s total preferred dividends from the company’s net income. Then divide that number by the end-of-period stock shares that are outstanding.

Basic EPS = (net income – preferred dividends) / weighted average number of common shares outstanding

For example, ABC Co. generates a net income of $2 million in a quarter. Simultaneously, the company rolls out $275,000 in preferred dividends and has 12 million outstanding shares of stock. In that calculation, knowing that shares of common stock are equal in value, the company’s earnings per share is $0.14.

(2,000,000 – 275,000) ÷ 12,000,000= 0.14

Example Without Preferred Dividends

For smaller publicly traded companies with no preferred dividends, the EPS calculation is more straightforward.

Basic EPS = net income / weighted average number of common shares outstanding

Let’s say DEF Corp. has generated a net income of $50,000 for the year. As the company has no preferred shares outstanding and has 5,000 weighted average shares on an annual basis, its earnings per share is $10.

50,000 ÷ 5,000= 10

In any EPS calculation, preferred dividends must be severed from net income. That’s because earnings per share is primarily designed to calculate the net income for holders of common stock.

Additionally, in most EPS end-of-period calculations, a company is mostly likely to calculate EPS for end-of-year financial statements. That’s because companies may issue new stock or buy back existing shares of company stock.

In those instances, a weighted average of common stock shares is required for an accurate EPS assessment. (A weighted average of a company’s outstanding shares can provide more clarity because a fixed number at any given time may provide a false EPS outcome, as share prices can be volatile and change quickly on a day-to-day basis.)

The most commonly used EPS share model calculation is the “trailing 12 months” formula, which tracks a company’s earnings per share by totaling its EPS for the previous four quarters.

The Takeaway

Earnings per share (EPS) can be calculated by investors to get a better sense of a company’s ability to produce income for shareholders. To calculate EPS, investors can use a ratio that takes a company’s quarterly or annual net income and divide it by the number of outstanding shares of stock on the market. There are different variations of the calculation, too.

Earnings trends, up or down, make earnings per share one of the most valuable metrics for assessing investments. Four or five years of positive EPS activity is considered an indicator that a company’s long-term financial prospects are robust and that its share growth should continue to rise.

Ready to invest in your goals? It’s easy to get started when you open an investment account with SoFi Invest. You can invest in stocks, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), mutual funds, alternative funds, and more. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).


For a limited time, opening and funding an Active Invest account gives you the opportunity to get up to $1,000 in the stock of your choice.

FAQ

How do you calculate EPS by year?

To calculate EPS by year, investors can use the formula that subtracts preferred dividends from net income, and then divide that number by the weighted average of common shares outstanding for the given year.

What is a good EPS ratio?

Each company is different, as is the context surrounding it, so there is no general rule about what makes a “good” EPS ratio for any given stock. Instead, investors should gauge analyst expectations, and consider a company’s age, among other things, to determine if its EPS is good or bad.

What are the two ways to calculate EPS?

Earnings per share (EPS) can be calculated with preferred dividends, or without preferred dividends, depending on the specific company.


SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Claw Promotion: Customer must fund their Active Invest account with at least $25 within 30 days of opening the account. Probability of customer receiving $1,000 is 0.028%. See full terms and conditions.

SOIN0523007

Read more
woman on bed with laptop

What Is a Mortgage? Understanding the Basics

If you’re dreaming of owning your own home, whether that means a cute Colonial or a loft-style condo, you are likely contemplating financing, and that can mean a mortgage. A home loan can give you the funds required to purchase a property, but there can be a learning curve involved, especially if you are a first-time homebuyer. For instance, what term should you select? How do mortgage interest rates work, and is a fixed rate typically best?

In this guide, you’ll get the scoop on how home loans work, what kind of options you have, and how to assess which loan could be right for you.

What is a Mortgage?

A mortgage loan, also known simply as a mortgage, is issued to a borrower who is either buying or refinancing real estate.

The borrower signs a legal agreement that gives the lender the ability to take ownership of the property if the loan holder doesn’t make payments according to the agreed-upon terms.

Once issued a mortgage, the homebuyer will pay monthly principal (that’s the lump sum of the loan) and interest payments for a specific term. The most common term for a fixed-rate mortgage is 30 years, but terms of 20, 15, and even 10 years are available.

A shorter-term translates to a higher monthly payment but lower total interest costs. Put another way, you pay more every month, but the amount of interest over the life of the loan is lower.


💡 Quick Tip: You deserve a more zen mortgage loan. When you buy a home, SoFi offers a guarantee that your loan will close on time. Backed by a $5,000 credit.‡

A Buffet of Mortgage Choices

When homebuyers apply for a loan, they’ll need to choose whether they want a fixed interest rate or an adjustable rate and the length of the loan.

Fixed-Rate Mortgage

The interest rate on the home loan doesn’t change, so the monthly principal and interest payment remains the same for the life of the loan. Whether mortgage rates increase or decrease, the loan holder is locked in for their monthly payment.

Adjustable-Rate Mortgage (ARM)

With an ARM, the interest rate is generally fixed for an initial period of time, such as five, seven, or 10 years, and then switches to a variable rate of interest. The rate fluctuates with the rate index that it’s tied to.

As the rate changes, monthly payments may increase or decrease. These loans generally have yearly and lifetime interest rate caps (or maximums) that limit how high the variable rate can adjust to.

Next, borrowers will need to decide what type of mortgage loan works best for them.

Conventional Loans

Conventional loans are loans that are not backed by a government agency and must adhere to the requirements of Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, or other investors. Typically, conventional loans are issued with at least 3% down. However, it’s worth noting that private mortgage insurance (commonly known as PMI) is generally required on loans with a down payment of less than 20%.

The coverage protects the lender against the risk of default. Your mortgage servicer must cancel your PMI when the mortgage balance reaches 78% of the home’s value or when the mortgage hits the halfway point of the loan term, if you’re in good standing.

PMI typically costs 0.2% to 2% of the loan amount per year.

Down payment: Generally between 3% and 20% of the purchase price or appraised value of the home, depending on the lender’s requirements.

FHA Loans

Loans insured by the Federal Housing Authority, or FHA loans, can be attractive to first-time homebuyers or those who struggle to meet the minimum requirements for a conventional loan.

These loans usually require a one-time upfront mortgage insurance premium (or MIP vs. PMI), which typically can be added to the mortgage, and an annual insurance premium, which is collected in monthly installments for the life of the loan in most cases.

Down payment: Starts at 3.5%

Recommended: First-Time Homebuyer Guide

VA Loans

Loans guaranteed by the U.S Department of Veterans Affairs are available to veterans, active-duty service members, and eligible surviving spouses.

VA-backed loans require a one-time “VA funding fee,” which can be rolled into the loan. The fee is based on a percentage of the loan amount and may be waived for certain disabled vets. The current range is from 1.5% to 3.3% of the loan amount.

Down payment: None for approximately 80% of VA-backed home loans.


💡 Quick Tip: A VA loan can make home buying simple for qualified borrowers. Because the VA guarantees a portion of the loan, you could skip a down payment. Plus, you could qualify for lower interest rates, enjoy lower closing costs, and even bypass mortgage insurance.†

How Does a Mortgage Work?

There are several components to a monthly mortgage payment.

Principal: The principal is the value of the loan. The portion of the payment made toward the principal reduces how much a borrower owes on the loan.

Interest: Each month, interest will be factored into payments according to an amortization schedule. Even though a borrower’s fixed payment may stay the same over the course of the loan, the amount allocated toward interest generally decreases over time while the portion allocated to principal increases.

Taxes: To ensure that a borrower makes annual property tax payments, a lender may collect monthly property taxes with the monthly mortgage payment. This money can be kept in an escrow account until the property tax bill is due, and the lender can make the property tax payment at that time.

Homeowners insurance: Mortgage lenders usually require evidence of homeowners insurance, which can cover damage from catastrophes such as fire and storms. As with property taxes, many lenders collect the insurance premiums as part of the monthly payment and pay for the annual insurance premium out of an escrow account. Depending on your property location, you may have to add flood, wind, or other additional insurance.

Mortgage insurance: When a borrower presents a down payment of less than 20% of the value of the home, mortgage lenders typically require private mortgage insurance. When developing a budget for owning a home, it’s important to know the difference between mortgage insurance and homeowners insurance and whether both are required.

Reverse Mortgage Loans: What Are They?

A reverse mortgage is available to homeowners 62 and older to supplement their income or pay for healthcare expenses by tapping into their home equity.

The loan can come in the form of a lump-sum payment, monthly payments, a line of credit, or a combination, usually tax-free. Interest accrues on the loan balance, but no payments are required. When a borrower dies, sells the property, or moves out permanently, the loan must be repaid entirely.

The fees for an FHA-insured home equity conversion mortgage, typically the most common type of reverse mortgage, can add up:

•  An initial mortgage insurance premium of 2% and an annual MIP that equals 0.5% of the outstanding mortgage balance

•  Third-party charges for closing costs

•  Loan origination fee

•  Loan servicing fees

You can pay for most of the costs of the loan from the proceeds, which will reduce the net loan amount available to you.

You remain responsible for property taxes, homeowners insurance, utilities, maintenance, and other expenses.

A HUD site details all the criteria for borrowers, financial requirements, eligible property types, and how to find an HECM counselor, a mandatory step.

If you’re considering a reverse mortgage, learn as much as you can about this often complicated kind of mortgage before talking to a counselor or lender, the Federal Trade Commission advises.

How to Get A Mortgage

For many people, it can be a good idea to shop around to get an idea of what is out there.

Not only will you need to choose the lender, but you’ll need to decide on the length of the loan, whether to go with a fixed or variable interest rate, and weigh the applicable loan fees.

The first step is to have an idea of what you want and then seek out quotes from a few lenders. That way, you can do a side-by-side comparison of the loans.

Once you’ve selected a few lenders to get started with, the next step is to get prequalified or preapproved for a loan. Based on a limited amount of information, a lender will estimate how much it is willing to lend you.

When you’re serious about taking out a mortgage loan and putting an offer on a house, the next step is to get preapproved with a lender.

During the preapproval process, the lender will take a closer look at your finances, including your credit, employment, income, and assets to determine exactly what you qualify for. Once you’re preapproved, you’re likely to be considered a more serious buyer by home sellers.

When shopping around for a mortgage, it can be a good idea to consider the overall cost of the mortgage and any fees.

For example, some lenders may charge an origination fee for creating the loan, or a prepayment penalty if you want to pay back the loan ahead of schedule. There may also be fees to third parties that provide information or services required to process, approve, and close your loan.

To compare the true cost of two or more mortgage loans, it’s best to look at the annual percentage rate, or APR, not just the interest rate. The interest rate is the rate used to calculate your monthly payment, but the APR is an approximation of all of the costs associated with a loan, including the interest rate and other fees, expressed as a percentage. The APR makes it easier to compare the total cost of a loan across different offerings so you can assess what is a good mortgage rate for your budget.

The Takeaway

If the world of mortgages feels like a mystery to you, you are not alone. Before taking on this colossal commitment, it can be best to soak up as much as you can about how mortgage loans work, what kinds of mortgages are available, potential challenges, and steps to qualify. You’ll be better prepared to take on what can be a major step in your personal financial journey.

Looking for an affordable option for a home mortgage loan? SoFi can help: We offer low down payments (as little as 3% - 5%*) with our competitive and flexible home mortgage loans. Plus, applying is extra convenient: It's online, with access to one-on-one help.


SoFi Mortgages: simple, smart, and so affordable.


Veterans, Service members, and members of the National Guard or Reserve may be eligible for a loan guaranteed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. VA loans are subject to unique terms and conditions established by VA and SoFi. Ask your SoFi loan officer for details about eligibility, documentation, and other requirements. VA loans typically require a one-time funding fee except as may be exempted by VA guidelines. The fee may be financed or paid at closing. The amount of the fee depends on the type of loan, the total amount of the loan, and, depending on loan type, prior use of VA eligibility and down payment amount. The VA funding fee is typically non-refundable. SoFi is not affiliated with any government agency.
SoFi On-Time Close Guarantee: If all conditions of the Guarantee are met, and your loan does not close on or before the closing date on your purchase contract accepted by SoFi, and the delay is due to SoFi, SoFi will give you a credit toward closing costs or additional expenses caused by the delay in closing of up to $10,000.^ The following terms and conditions apply. This Guarantee is available only for loan applications submitted after 04/01/2024. Please discuss terms of this Guarantee with your loan officer. The mortgage must be a purchase transaction that is approved and funded by SoFi. This Guarantee does not apply to loans to purchase bank-owned properties or short-sale transactions. To qualify for the Guarantee, you must: (1) Sign up for access to SoFi’s online portal and upload all requested documents, (2) Submit documents requested by SoFi within 5 business days of the initial request and all additional doc requests within 2 business days (3) Submit an executed purchase contract on an eligible property with the closing date at least 25 calendar days from the receipt of executed Intent to Proceed and receipt of credit card deposit for an appraisal (30 days for VA loans; 40 days for Jumbo loans), (4) Lock your loan rate and satisfy all loan requirements and conditions at least 5 business days prior to your closing date as confirmed with your loan officer, and (5) Pay for and schedule an appraisal within 48 hours of the appraiser first contacting you by phone or email. This Guarantee will not be paid if any delays to closing are attributable to: a) the borrower(s), a third party, the seller or any other factors outside of SoFi control; b) if the information provided by the borrower(s) on the loan application could not be verified or was inaccurate or insufficient; c) attempting to fulfill federal/state regulatory requirements and/or agency guidelines; d) or the closing date is missed due to acts of God outside the control of SoFi. SoFi may change or terminate this offer at any time without notice to you. *To redeem the Guarantee if conditions met, see documentation provided by loan officer.
*SoFi requires Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) for conforming home loans with a loan-to-value (LTV) ratio greater than 80%. As little as 3% down payments are for qualifying first-time homebuyers only. 5% minimum applies to other borrowers. Other loan types may require different fees or insurance (e.g., VA funding fee, FHA Mortgage Insurance Premiums, etc.). Loan requirements may vary depending on your down payment amount, and minimum down payment varies by loan type.

SoFi Loan Products
SoFi loans are originated by SoFi Bank, N.A., NMLS #696891 (Member FDIC). For additional product-specific legal and licensing information, see SoFi.com/legal. Equal Housing Lender.


SoFi Mortgages
Terms, conditions, and state restrictions apply. Not all products are available in all states. See SoFi.com/eligibility for more information.


Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.

External Websites: The information and analysis provided through hyperlinks to third-party websites, while believed to be accurate, cannot be guaranteed by SoFi. Links are provided for informational purposes and should not be viewed as an endorsement.

SOHL1023240

Read more
index card money sign

Financial Index Card: All You Need for Your Money Management

    Money management can be complex, but what if the best, smartest advice could fit on one little index card? That’s the idea behind the financial index card. It’s a concept that the researcher who popularized the idea that the most effective strategies could be summarized on a small piece of paper, whether you pin that to your fridge, carry it in your pocket, or keep it next to your laptop.

    Here, you’ll learn the story of that financial index card and what exactly is written on it. The advice written on it could help build your money smarts and build your wealth.

    The Story Behind the Financial Index Card

    The financial index card got its start In 2013, when Harold Pollack, PhD, a social scientist at the University of Chicago, posted a photo of an index card online. On the card, he said, was the only financial advice anyone ever needed to know.

    He created the card after interviewing personal finance writer Helaine Olen. During their talk, Pollack jokingly claimed that all the necessary info about good money management could fit on an index card.

    Pollack’s off-the-cuff comment — at the time he hadn’t actually produced this index card — generated a lot of audience commentary with investors wondering what his advice would be. Pollack grabbed an index card, wrote down nine tips, snapped a photo, and posted it online.

    The nine simple tips on the card resonated with the public and the photo went viral. In fact, the concept was so popular that Pollack teamed up with Olen to write a book, The Index Card: Why Personal Advice Doesn’t Have to Be Complicated.

    The Financial Index Card’s Advice

    Here is a rundown of the nine tips Pollack offered on the original card and an explanation of what each one means to help you better understand the value of the financial index card.

    1. Max Out Your 401(k) or Other Employee Contribution

    A traditional 401(k) is a retirement plan that offers various investment options and is often offered via your employer – but note that not all employers offer 401(k)s as a benefit. Sometimes your employer will make matching contributions to your 401(k) as well.

    What makes 401(k)s particularly useful are the tax advantages that they offer. You can fund 401(k)s with pretax money.

    Contributions can be taken straight from your paycheck before you pay any income tax, which in turn lowers your taxable income and potentially your tax bill that year. Keep in mind that when you later make withdrawals from your 401(k), you will owe income tax.

    But once in the 401(k), your money grows tax-deferred. Your employer will likely offer a number of investment options for you to choose from, such as mutual funds or target-date funds.

    The more money you can put into your 401(k), the more money you have at work for you. If your employer offers matching funds, aim to at least save the minimum amount to max out the match if you can.

    Saving for your future merits a spot on the financial index card because it’s such a vital part of planning ahead, achieving your money goals, and building your net worth. What’s more, stashing away cash for tomorrow can also help reduce money stress.

    2. Buy Inexpensive, Well-Diversified Mutual Funds

    Here’s the next bit of advice from the financial index card: It’s about buying mutual funds. A mutual fund takes a pool of money from investors and buys a basket of securities such as stocks or bonds. They are an important tool investors can use to diversify their portfolios.

    Diversification is a way to help reduce risk in your portfolio. Imagine that you had a portfolio that was only invested in one stock. If that company does poorly, your entire portfolio may suffer. Now imagine that you invested in 100 stocks. If one of the stocks does poorly, its effect on the portfolio as a whole will likely be much smaller.

    Investors may choose to invest in a target date fund, which holds a diverse selection of stocks and bonds. Investors may use these funds to work toward a goal a number of years down the line.

    Say you will retire in 2050, you may choose a target date fund with a provider called the 2050 Fund. As the target date approaches — aka the date at which you’ll likely need your money — the asset allocation inside the fund will typically shift to become more conservative.

    Mutual funds typically charge fees to pay for management costs. The fees may take a bite out of your eventual return. Consider looking for target funds that charge lower fees to minimize the amount that you’ll end up paying.

    This investing advice can help you grow your wealth and meet your long-term financial goals.

    3. Don’t Buy or Sell an Individual Security

    Buying and selling individual stocks can be tricky. It’s difficult to know how an individual stock will behave, and choosing stocks can take a lot of time and research. It may be easier for investors to use mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), or index funds to gain exposure to many different stocks.

    Investors who are interested in adding individual stocks when managing their portfolio may want to consider their overall asset allocation and diversification strategy to be sure that the stock is the right fit.

    4. Save 20% of Your Money

    Here’s the next bit of advice on the financial index card: Save 20% of your earnings. This saving tip from Pollack dovetails nicely with the popular 50/30/20 budget rule. This rule states:

    •  50% of your income should be used to cover your needs, such as car payments, groceries, housing, and utilities.

    •  30% of your spending should be used to cover your wants, such as eating out, vacations, or hobbies.

    •  20% is the money you save, which can go toward paying down debts, building an emergency fund, or stashing cash for retirement.

    Another formula for saving that some experts recommend:

    •  Put 12% to 15% toward retirement

    •  The remaining 5% to 8% goes toward paying off debt and building an emergency fund.

    You can keep track of your savings with various mobile and online savings and budgeting tools. (Check with your bank; they may offer some.)

    If it’s not possible for you to save 20% of your income (perhaps you live in a place with a very high cost of living), then save as much as you are able.


    💡 Quick Tip: Did you know that opening a brokerage account typically doesn’t come with any setup costs? Often, the only requirement to open a brokerage account — aside from providing personal details — is making an initial deposit.

    5. Pay Your Credit Card Balance in Full Every Month

    Credit cards can be extremely convenient, whether you’re renting a car or buying a new refrigerator with all the bells and whistles which you couldn’t otherwise afford.

    However, if you start to carry a credit card balance from month to month, your credit card debt may quickly spiral out of control. The average annual percentage rate, or APR, for credit cards currently tops 20%. This rate represents that amount of interest that you’ll pay on the balance of your credit card.

    What’s more, many credit cards only require that you make a minimum payment each month — less than the balance you’re carrying. But think twice before making these minimal payments. You can continue to accrue interest, and the time required to pay off the entire amount of debt can be lengthy.

    To avoid being sucked into this spiral of revolving credit, follow the financial index card’s advice. You might consider trying to spend only what you can truly afford each month on your credit card and paying off your balance in full, if possible.

    6. Maximize Tax-Advantaged Savings Vehicles like Roth, SEP, and 529 Accounts

    A 401(k) is not your only option for tax-advantaged accounts. If you’ve earned income — and even if you already have a 401(k) — you can take advantage of setting up an IRA account. Here are some details:

    •  Contributions to traditional IRAs are made pretax and then grow tax-deferred. Contributions to Roth IRAs are made after-tax and grow without being taxed.

    •  Withdrawals from Roth accounts, when meeting specific criteria, are not subject to income tax.

    •  Small business or self-employed workers can take advantage of SEP IRAs, which allow employers to make contributions in an employee’s name.

    •  A 529 plan is a tax-advantaged account that helps people save to cover qualified education expenses, such as college tuition. These plans are sponsored by states, state agencies, and educational institutions. Contributions to 529 plans are made with after-tax money.

    However, savings inside the account grow without being taxed and qualified withdrawals are not subject to tax. Contributions are not federally deductible, but some states allow deductions on state income tax.

    Like 401(k)s, these tax-advantaged accounts allow you to supercharge your savings and can make your money work harder for you.

    7. Pay Attention to Fees and Avoid Actively Managed Funds

    The next point on the financial index card focuses on investing decisions. Actively-managed funds are run by portfolio managers who are trying to find ways to beat market returns. This requires time and manpower, both of which can be expensive.

    Actively-managed funds pass this expense on to investors in the form of fees. Investors do have an alternative in index funds, which try to match the returns of an index, such as the S&P 500. They do so by buying all or nearly all of the securities included in the index.

    Managing this type of fund takes less time and effort and is therefore typically cheaper than active management. As a result, index funds often have lower fees than actively-managed funds.

    The potential to outperform the market may make actively managed funds sound pretty tempting. With an index fund you’re likely not going to do better than the market; the funds are actually aiming to mirror the market.

    Understanding this difference can help you assess whether paying fees to go after better-than-the-market results is worthwhile for your financial management.

    8. Make Financial Advisors Commit to the Fiduciary Standard

    To understand this strategy on the financial index card, it’s helpful to first understand your terms. A fiduciary standard refers to the duty of financial advisors to always work in their customers’ best interests. That may seem like a no-brainer. Wouldn’t all financial advisors do that? Yet, there are myriad opportunities for conflicts of interest to arise in relationships between financial advisors and investors.

    For example, advisors may be paid a commission when their clients invest in certain funds. If advisors don’t disclose that information, clients can’t be sure the advisor is suggesting investments because they’re the right fit for their portfolio or because the advisor is paid to use them. Advisors adhering to a fiduciary standard disclose conflicts of interest or avoid them altogether.

    Since Pollack’s index card made waves in 2013, the U.S. Department of Labor has tried to issue regulations that all financial advisors maintain a fiduciary standard when overseeing retirement accounts.

    The Fifth Circuit Court decided that this ruling was an overreach and shot it down in 2018. In 2023, the DOL put forth a proposal to revive the rule, but as of writing, no changes have been implemented. However, until it is (if ever), investors can ask their advisors whether they adhere to a fiduciary standard, and if they don’t, ask them to commit to doing so.

    Another option: Investors may turn to fee-only vs. fee-based advisors, who accept fees from their clients as their only form of compensation. Fee-only advisors by definition operate under a fiduciary standard.

    9. Promote Social Insurance Programs to Help People When Things Go Wrong

    A rising tide lifts all ships. This final tip on the financial index card is about supporting social programs like Social Security, Medicare, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which help keep the population healthy as a whole — financially and literally.

    You likely already pay into programs like these through Social Security and Medicare taxes. These are taken straight out of your paycheck if you’re employed, or if you’re self-employed, you pay them yourself. (And even the savviest of investors may need to fall back on government support.)

    The Next Financial Index Card

    In 2017, Pollack acknowledged his financial tips were directed toward people of at least middle class means, so he came up with a second index card. This time, he focused more on the needs of those who had a lower income or more financial obligations.

    The second financial index card included these points:

    •  Set and pursue financial goals that excite you.

    •  Follow a budget and track your spending.

    •  Pay cash or by check rather than by credit card or payment plan whenever possible.

    •  Save consistently, and build a financial reserve.

    •  Make sure you are receiving all pertinent public benefits.

    •  Make good use of your tax refund and/or your EITC.

    •  Don’t buy any financial service/product endorsed by any celebrity.

    •  By cheap index funds rather than individual stocks.

    •  Invest in your 401(k) if you have access to one.

    •  Work with a financial coach.

    •  Protect yourself from fraud and abuse.

    •  Look into a credit union, even if you have been unbanked.

    Start Investing With SoFi

    The financial index card is a simple concept, but it can be helpful to many people. Although Pollack’s advice covers a lot, there’s only so much you can fit on an index card. Tips like setting specific financial goals, simplifying your finances, keeping track of your spending (not just your savings), and setting a realistic budget, are also helpful in establishing and maintaining financial wellness.

    As always, if you’re struggling to manage your finances, it may be a good idea to speak with a financial professional. A financial index card can help, but marshaling additional resources may not be a bad idea.

    Ready to invest in your goals? It’s easy to get started when you open an investment account with SoFi Invest. You can invest in stocks, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), mutual funds, alternative funds, and more. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

    For a limited time, opening and funding an Active Invest account gives you the opportunity to get up to $1,000 in the stock of your choice.



    SoFi Invest®
    INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
    SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
    1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
    2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
    For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
    Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

    Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

    Claw Promotion: Customer must fund their Active Invest account with at least $25 within 30 days of opening the account. Probability of customer receiving $1,000 is 0.028%. See full terms and conditions.

    SOIN1023163

    Read more
TLS 1.2 Encrypted
Equal Housing Lender