A Comprehensive Guide to Treasury Bills (T-Bills)

U.S. government-backed securities like Treasury bills (T-bills) provide a way to invest with minimal risk. These debt instruments are one of several different types of Treasury securities including Treasury notes (T-notes) and Treasury bonds (T-bonds).

Unlike other treasuries, however, T-bills don’t pay interest. Rather, investors buy T-bills at a discount to par (the face value).

Investors looking for a low-risk investment with a short time horizon and a modest return may find T-bills an attractive investment. T-bills have minimal default risk and maturities of a year or less. But Treasury bill rates are typically lower than those of some other investments.

Key Points

•   T-bills are short-term investments that offer a guaranteed rate of return.

•   Investors don’t receive coupon, or interest, payments. The return is the discount rate.

•   T-bills have a near-zero risk of default.

•   Investors can buy T-bills directly from TreasuryDirect.gov, or on the secondary market using a brokerage account.

What Is a Treasury Bill (T-Bill)?

Treasury bills are debt instruments issued by the U.S. government. They are short-term securities and are issued with maturity dates ranging from 4 weeks to one year. It may be possible to buy T-bills on the secondary market with maturities as short as a few days.

How Treasury Bills Work

Essentially, when an individual buys a T-bill, they are lending money to the U.S. government. In general, T-bills are considered very low risk, since they are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government, which has never defaulted on its debts.

T-bills are sold at a discount to their par, or face value. They are essentially zero-coupon bonds. They don’t pay interest, unlike other types of Treasuries (and coupon bonds); rather the difference between the discount price and the face value is like an interest payment.

T-Bill Purchase Example

While all securities have a face value, also known as the par value, typically investors purchase Treasury bills at a discount to par. Then, when the T-bill matures, investors receive the full face value amount. So, if they purchased a treasury bill for less than it was worth, they would receive a greater amount when it matures.

Example

Suppose an investor purchases a 52-week T-bill for $4,500 with a par value of $5,000, a 5% discount. Since the government promises to repay the full value of the T-bill when it expires, the investors will receive $5,000 at maturity, and realize a profit or yield of $500.

In the example above, the discount rate of the T-bill is 5% — and that is also the yield. But examples aside, the actual 52-week Treasury bill rate, as of Feb. 1, 2024, is 4.46%.

Recommended: How to Buy Treasury Bills, Bonds, and Notes

T-Bill Maturities

Understanding the maturity date of a T-bill is important. This is the length of time you’ll hold the bill before you redeem it for the full face value. Maturity dates affect the discount rate, with longer maturities generally offering a higher discount/return, but interest rates will influence the discount.

The government issues T-bills at regular auctions, in four-, eight-, 13-, 17-, 26-, and 52-week terms, in increments ranging from $100 to $10 million. The minimum T-bill purchase from TreasuryDirect.gov is $100.

Some investors may create ladders (similar to bond ladders), which allow them to roll their T-bills at maturity into more T-bills. Although T-bill rates are fixed, and because their maturities are so short, they don’t have much sensitivity to interest rate fluctuations.

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How to Purchase T-Bills

You can purchase T-bills at regular government auctions on TreasuryDirect, or on the secondary market, from your brokerage account.

Buying From Treasury Direct

Noncompetitive bids: With a noncompetitive bill, the investor accepts the discount prices that were established at the Treasuries auction, which are an average of the bids submitted.

Since the investor will receive the full value of the T-bill when the term expires, some investors often favor this simple technique of investing in T-bills.

Competitive bid: With a competitive bid, all investors propose the discount rate they are prepared to pay for a given T-bill. The lowest discount rate offers are selected first. If investors don’t propose enough low bids to complete the entire order, the auction will move onto the next lowest bid and so on until the entire order is filled.

Buying and Selling on the Secondary Market

Another option is to purchase or sell T-bills on the secondary market, using a standard brokerage account.

Investors can also trade exchange-traded funds (ETFs) or mutual funds that may include T-bills that were released in the past.

Redemption and Interest Earnings on T-Bills

As noted above, although T-bills are debt instruments and an investor’s loan is repaid “with interest,” T-Bills don’t have a coupon payment the way some bonds do. Rather, investors buy T-bills at a discount, and the difference between the lower purchase price and the higher face value is effectively the interest payment when the T-bill matures.

When a T-bill matures, investors can redeem it for cash at Treasury.gov.

T-bill purchases and redemptions are now fully digital. Paper T-bills are no longer available.

Tax Implications for T-Bill Investors

Gains from all Treasuries, including T-bills, are taxed at the federal level; i.e. they are taxed as income on your federal income tax return.

Treasury gains are exempt from state and local income tax.

Comparing T-Bills to Treasury Notes and Bonds

The U.S. government offers a number of debt instruments, including Treasury Bills, Notes, and Bonds. The difference between them is their maturity dates, which can also affect interest rates and discount rates.

Treasury Notes

Investors can purchase Treasury notes (or T-notes) in quantities of $1,000 and with terms ranging from two to 10 years. Treasury notes pay interest, known as coupon payments, bi-annually.

Treasury Bonds

Out of all Treasury securities, Treasury bonds have the most extended maturity terms: up to 30 years. Like T-notes, Treasury bonds pay interest every six months. And when the bond matures the entire value of the bond is repaid.

Recommended: How to Buy Bonds: A Guide for Beginners

Considerations When Investing in T-Bills

Like any other investments, it’s important to understand how T-bills work, the pros and cons, and how they can fit into your portfolio.

What Influences T-Bill Prices in the Market?

Although any T-bill you buy offers a guaranteed yield at maturity, because T-bills are short-term debt the discount rates (and therefore the yield) can fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including market conditions, interest rates, and inflation.

The Role of Maturity Dates and Market Risk

Generally, the longer the maturity date of the bill, the higher the returns. But if interest rates are predicted to rise over time, that could make existing T-bills less desirable, which could affect their price on the secondary market. It’s possible, then, that an investor could sell a T-bill for lower than what they paid for it.

Federal Reserve Policies and Inflation Concerns

It’s also important to consider the role of the Federal Reserve Bank, which sets the federal funds target rate, for overnight lending between banks. When the fed funds rate is lower, banks have more money to lend, but when it’s higher there’s less money circulating.

Thus the fed funds rate has an impact on the cost of lending across the board, which impacts inflation, purchasing power — and T-bill rates and prices as well. As described, T-bill rates are fixed, so as interest rates rise, the price of T-bills drops because they become less desirable.

By the same token, when the Fed lowers interest rates that tends to favor T-bills. Investors buy up the higher-yield bills, driving up prices on the secondary market.

How Can Investors Decide on Maturity Terms?

Bear in mind that because the maturity terms of T-bills are relatively short — they’re issued with six terms (four, six, 13, 17, 26 and 52 weeks) — it’s possible to redeem the T-bills you buy relatively quickly.

T-bill rates vary according to their maturity, so that will influence which term will work for you.

💡 Quick Tip: It’s smart to invest in a range of assets so that you’re not overly reliant on any one company or market to do well. For example, by investing in different sectors you can add diversification to your portfolio, which may help mitigate some risk factors over time.

Advantages and Disadvantages of T-Bills

Advantages of T-Bills

•   They are a low-risk investment. Since they are backed in the full faith of the U.S. government, there is a slim to none chance of default.

•   They have a low barrier to entry. In other words, investors who don’t have a lot of money to invest can invest a small amount of money while earning a return, starting at $100.

•   They can help diversify a portfolio. Diversifying a portfolio helps investors minimize risk exposure by spreading funds across various investment opportunities of varying risks and potential returns.

Disadvantages of T-Bills

•   Low yield. T-bills provide a lower yield compared to other higher-yield bonds or investments such as stocks. So, for investors looking for higher yields, Treasury bills might not be the way to go.

•   Inflation risk exposure. T-bills are exposed to risks such as inflation. If the inflation rate is 4% and a T-bill has a discount rate of 2%, for example, it wouldn’t make sense to invest in T-bills—the inflation exceeds the return an investor would receive, and they would lose money on the investment.

Using Treasury Bills to Diversify

Investing all of one’s money into one asset class leaves an investor exposed to a higher rate of risk of loss. To mitigate risk, investors may turn to diversification as an investing strategy.

With diversification, investors place their money in an assortment of investments — from stocks and bonds to real estate and alternative investments — rather than placing all of their money in one investment. With more sophisticated diversification, investors can diversify within each asset class and sector to truly ensure all investments are spread out.

For example, to reduce the risk of economic uncertainty that tends to impact stocks, investors may choose to invest in the U.S. Treasury securities, such as mutual funds that carry T-bills, to offset these stocks’ potentially negative performance. Since the U.S. Treasuries tend to perform well in such environments, they may help minimize an investor’s loss from stocks not performing.

The Takeaway

Treasury bills are one investment opportunity in which an investor is basically lending money to the government for the short term. While the return on T-bills may be lower than the typical return on other investments, the risk is also much lower, as the US government backs these bills.

Ready to invest in your goals? It’s easy to get started when you open an investment account with SoFi Invest. You can invest in stocks, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), mutual funds, alternative funds, and more. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).


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SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Investment Risk: Diversification can help reduce some investment risk. It cannot guarantee profit, or fully protect in a down market.

Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.

Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs): Investors should carefully consider the information contained in the prospectus, which contains the Fund’s investment objectives, risks, charges, expenses, and other relevant information. You may obtain a prospectus from the Fund company’s website or by email customer service at [email protected]. Please read the prospectus carefully prior to investing.
Shares of ETFs must be bought and sold at market price, which can vary significantly from the Fund’s net asset value (NAV). Investment returns are subject to market volatility and shares may be worth more or less their original value when redeemed. The diversification of an ETF will not protect against loss. An ETF may not achieve its stated investment objective. Rebalancing and other activities within the fund may be subject to tax consequences.


Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

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Tips for Investing in Retirement

6 Investing Tips and Strategies for Retirees

A lot of personal finance advice is about saving for retirement. But the need for saving and investing doesn’t stop once you’re done working; seniors also need to maintain a sound investment strategy during retirement.

Retirees face several challenges that make investing after 65 necessary, including maintaining safe income streams, outpacing inflation, and avoiding the risk of running out of money. Here are some tips seniors may consider as they choose the right path for investing after retirement.

1. Assess Income Sources and Budget

Once in retirement, seniors likely don’t have an income stream from a steady paycheck. Instead, retirees utilize a mix of sources to pay the bills, such as Social Security, withdrawals from retirement and savings accounts, and perhaps passive sources of income such as rental properties. This change, going from relying on a regular salary to relying on savings and investments to fund a particular lifestyle, can be daunting.

Retirees should first understand where their income is coming from and how much is coming in to help navigate this financial change. This initial step can help establish a budget that allows them to comfortably cover typical retirement expenses and map out discretionary spending or new investments in their golden years.

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2. Track Down Forgotten 401(k)s and Other Lost Money

If you changed jobs during your career, it’s possible that you left an old 401(k) behind. As of May 2023, there were 29.2 million forgotten or left-behind 401(k) accounts, according to estimates by Capitalize, a company that helps with 401(k) rollovers. These forgotten accounts hold about $1.65 trillion in assets.

To determine if you have a forgotten 401(k), make a list of every company you worked for and where you participated in a 401(k) plan. Contact them to see if they still have an account in your name. If a company no longer exists, or if it merged with another company, check with the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL). Visit the DOL website, where you can track down your former company’s Form 5500, which is required to be filed annually for employee benefit plans. That should give you contact information you can reach out to or at least tell you who your 401(k) plan’s administrator was.

If you still can’t find a forgotten 401(k), you could try the National Registry of Unclaimed Retirement Benefits. Be aware that you’ll need to supply your Social Security number to search on their website. Another option is to check the website for the National Association of Unclaimed Property Administrators, which may be able to help you find unclaimed funds, including an old 401(k). Check under every state that you’ve lived and worked in.

If and when you find an old 401(k), you can roll it over into an IRA. If you don’t yet have an IRA, you can set one up online. From there, you can invest the money as you see fit.

3. Understand Time Horizon and Risk

Retirees must consider time horizon and risk in post-retirement investment plans. Time horizon is the amount of time an individual has to invest before reaching a financial goal or needing the investment earnings for living expenses.

Time horizon significantly affects risk tolerance, which is the balance an individual is willing to strike between risk and reward. Generally speaking, seniors with a time horizon of a decade or more might choose to invest in riskier assets, such as stocks, because they feel they may have time to ride out any short-term downturns in the market. Individuals with a short time horizon of just a few years may stick to more conservative investments, such as bonds, where they can benefit from capital preservation and interest income.

4. Consider Diversification

Diversification involves spreading out investment across different asset classes, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, and cash. Diversification also involves spreading investments out among factors such as sector, size, and geography within each asset class.

It is important to consider diversification when investing after retirement. Diversification may help investors protect their portfolios from the risk and volatility unique to a specific type of investment, although there is still risk involved. Retirees do not want to concentrate a portfolio with any one asset, which may increase volatility during a period when they want a low risk tolerance.

5. Rebalance Regularly

A retiree’s financial goals, risk tolerance, and time horizon generally affect the desired asset allocation in an investment portfolio. However, those initial goals and risk considerations can change during a retiree’s golden years.

Additionally, the market is constantly in flux, shifting the proportions of assets a person holds. It may make sense to rebalance the assets inside a portfolio regularly.

Rebalancing a portfolio can be thought of like the routine upkeep of your investments. For example, if a portfolio has an asset allocation of 70% bonds and 30% stocks and the stocks do well during a year, they might make up a higher percentage of a portfolio than planned. By the end of the year, the asset allocation may be 65% bonds and 35% stocks. The investor may want to rebalance by selling stock and buying more conservative assets, such as bonds, to ensure the portfolio’s asset allocation is in line with their goals. Alternatively, they may use other income to make new bond investments.

6. Keep an Eye on Inflation

Retirees living on a fixed income may be negatively affected by rising inflation. As prices increase, the fixed income that an individual relies on will be worth less the following year. For example, if an individual receives $1,000 a month in a fixed income and inflation rises by a 4% annual rate, then that $1,000 monthly income will be worth $960 in today’s money.

Investments that pay out a fixed interest rate, such as bonds, are most vulnerable to inflation risk as inflation may outpace the earned interest rate. Some other assets may outpace inflation, such as stocks, real estate investment trusts (REITs), or inflation-protected securities.

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Only offers made via ACH are eligible for the match. ACATs, wires, and rollovers are not included.

Smart, Safer Investment Options for Retirees

Retirees have a lot of choices when it comes to making new investments. But their financial goals, age, and risk tolerance can impact which investments they choose to make. Here are a few investments for seniors in retirement with those factors in mind.

Cash

Cash is the most stable way to hold money, and it is a necessary part of a retiree’s financial portfolio. Keeping cash on hand can help cover necessities like housing, utilities, food, and clothes.

Retirees can put a portion of their cash in a money market account or a high-yield savings account to earn interest while having easy access to their cash. However, the interest paid out in typical savings or checking accounts tends to be very low and may not beat the inflation rate. That means the money in these accounts may slowly lose its value over time.

By comparison, some high-yield savings accounts pay nearly 5% interest, compared to the 0.47% national average rate.

Bonds

Bonds generally don’t offer the same potential for high returns as stocks and other assets, but they may have advantages for investing after retirement. Bonds typically pay interest regularly, such as twice a year, which may provide investors with a predictable income desired in retirement. Also, if investors hold a bond to maturity, they typically get back their entire principal, which can help preserve their savings while investing.

However, it’s important to be aware that while bonds are considered by investors to be a less risky investment, it’s still possible to lose money investing in them. For instance, a bond issuer may fail to make interest payments and default on the bond. Retirees should be aware of the risks involved when considering bonds.

Various types of bonds may help investors preserve capital and realize interest income during retirement, including relatively safe U.S. Treasuries. Additionally, Treasury-Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) are bonds that hedge against inflation, which can be helpful for retirees worried about rising prices.

Stocks

Stocks are considered a risky investment; they tend to be more volatile than more conservative assets like bonds or certificates of deposit. Though investing in stocks can potentially lead to significant returns, it also means there is the potential for big losses that many retirees may not be able to stomach. However, there may be value in investing in stocks for seniors.

Stock investments may help ensure a portfolio experiences capital gains that outpace inflation and have enough income in the later decades of their retirement. It may not make sense for older investors to chase returns from higher risk stocks like tech start-ups. Instead, retirees may look for proven companies whose stocks offer steady growth. Retirees may consider investing in companies that provide stable dividend payouts that generate a regular income source.

Certificates of Deposit

Certificates of deposit, otherwise known as CDs, are low-risk investments that may offer higher interest rates than typical savings accounts. Investors put their money in a CD and choose a term, or length of time, that the bank will hold their money. The term length is generally anywhere from one month to 20 years, and during this period, the investor can’t touch the money until the term is up. Once the term is over, the investor gets the principal back, plus interest. Typically, the longer the investor’s money is in the account, the more interest the bank will pay.

Fixed Annuities

Fixed annuities may provide retirees with a regular income, bolster the gains from other investments, and supplement savings. In short, an annuity is a contract with an insurance company. The buyer pays into the annuity for a certain number of years, and the insurance company pays back the money in monthly payments. Essentially, an individual is paying the insurance company to take on the risk of outliving their retirement savings.

The Takeaway

Investing for retirement should begin as soon as possible, ideally through a tax-advantaged retirement account. But the need for a sound investing strategy doesn’t stop once you hit retirement. You need to ensure that your savings and investments are working for you throughout your golden years.

Another step that can help you manage your retirement savings is doing a 401(k) rollover, where you move funds from an old account to a rollover IRA. You can even search for a lost or forgotten 401(k) to roll over into an IRA.

Ready to invest for your retirement? It’s easy to get started when you open a traditional or Roth IRA with SoFi. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

Help grow your nest egg with a SoFi IRA.


SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Third-Party Brand Mentions: No brands, products, or companies mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third-party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Investment Risk: Diversification can help reduce some investment risk. It cannot guarantee profit, or fully protect in a down market.

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Finding Your Old 401k: Here's What to Do

How to Find an Old 401(k)

Tracking down an old 401(k) may take some time, and perhaps the quickest way to find old 401(k) money is to contact your former employer to see where the account is now. It’s possible that your lost 401(k) isn’t lost at all; instead, it’s right where you left it.

In some cases, however, employers may cash out an old 401(k) or roll it over to an IRA on behalf of a former employee. In that case, you might have to do a little more digging to find lost 401(k) funds. If you ever wished you could click on an app called “Find my 401(k),” the following strategies may be of use.

4 Ways to Track Down Lost or Forgotten 401(k) Accounts

There’s no real secret to how to find old 401(k) accounts. But the process can be a little time consuming as it may require you to search online or make a phone call or two. But it can be well worth it if you’re able to locate your old 401(k).

There are several ways to find an old 401(k) account. Here are a handful that may prove fruitful.

Contact Former Employers

The first place to start when trying to find old 401(k) accounts is with your previous employer.

If you had more than $5,000 in your 401(k) at the time you left your job, it’s likely that your account may still be right where you left it. In that case, you have a few options for what to do with the money:

•   Leave it where it is

•   Transfer your 401(k) to your current employer’s qualified plan

•   Rollover the account into an Individual Retirement Account (IRA)

•   Cash it out

When your plan balance is less than $5,000 your employer might require you to do a 401(k) rollover or cash it out. If you’re comfortable with the investment options offered through the plan and the fees you’ll pay, you might decide to leave it alone until you get a little closer to retirement. On the other hand, if you’d like to consolidate all of your retirement money into a single account, you may want to roll it into your current plan or into an IRA.

Cashing out your 401(k) has some downsides. You would owe taxes on the money, and likely an early withdrawal penalty as well. So you may only want to consider this option if your account holds a smaller amount of money. If you had less than $5,000 in your old 401(k), it’s possible that your employer may have rolled the money over to an IRA for you or cashed it out and mailed a check to you.

Recommended: How Does a 401(k) Rollover Work?

Track Down Old Statements

If you have an old account statement, you can contact your 401(k) provider directly to find out what’s happened to your lost 401(k). This might be necessary if your former employer has gone out of business and your old 401(k) plan was terminated.

When a company terminates a 401(k), the IRS requires a rollover notice to be sent to plan participants. If you’ve moved since leaving the company, the plan administrator may have outdated address information for you on file. So you may not be aware that the money was rolled over.

Either way, your plan administrator should be able to tell you which custodian now holds your lost 401(k) funds. Once you have that information, you could reach out to the custodian to determine how much money is in the account. You can then decide if you want to leave it where it is, roll it over to another retirement account, or cash it out.

Check With Government Agencies

Different types of retirement plans, including 401(k) plans, are required to keep certain information on file with the IRS and the Department of Labor (DOL). One key piece of information is DOL Form 5500. This form is used to collect data for employee benefit plans that are subject to federal ERISA (Employee Retirement Income Security Act) guidelines.

How does that help you find your 401(k)? The Department of Labor offers a Form 5500 search tool online that you can use to locate lost 401(k) plans. You can search by plan name or plan sponsor. If you know either one, you can look up the plan’s Form 5500, which should include contact information. From there, you can reach out to the plan sponsor to track down your lost 401(k).

Search National Registries

Another place to try is the National Registry of Unclaimed Retirement Benefits. This is an online database you can use to search for an unclaimed 401(k) that you may have left with a previous employer. You’ll need to enter your Social Security number to search for lost retirement account benefits.

In order for your name to come up in the search results, your former employer must have entered your name and personal information in that database. If they haven’t done so, it’s possible you may not find your account this way.

💡 Quick Tip: Want to lower your taxable income? Start saving for retirement with a traditional IRA. The money you save each year is tax deductible (and you don’t owe any taxes until you withdraw the funds, usually in retirement).

Boost your retirement contributions with a 1% match.

SoFi IRAs now get a 1% match on every dollar you deposit, up to the annual contribution limits. Open an account today and get started.


Only offers made via ACH are eligible for the match. ACATs, wires, and rollovers are not included.

What Should I Do With Recovered Funds?

If you do manage to recover an old 401(k) account and its assets, you’ll have some options as to what to do with it. In many cases, it might be a good idea to roll it over into another retirement account to try and stay on track with your retirement savings.

Another important point to consider: If you’ve changed jobs multiple times, it’s possible that you could have more than one “lost” 401(k) — and taken together, that money could make a surprising difference to your nest egg.

Last, if you were lucky to have an employer that offered a matching 401(k) contribution, your missing account (or accounts) may have more money in them than you think. For example, a common employer match is 50%, up to the first 6% of your salary. If you don’t make an effort to find old 401(k) accounts, you’re missing out on that “free money” as well.

But if you’re unsure of what to do, it may be worth speaking with a financial professional for guidance.

Further, if you’re not able to find lost 401(k) accounts you still have plenty of options for retirement savings. Contributing to your current employer’s 401(k) allows you to set aside money on a tax-deferred basis. And you might be able to grow your money faster with an employer matching contribution.

What if you’re self-employed? In that case, you could choose to open a solo or individual 401(k). This type of 401(k) plan is designed for business owners who have no employees or only employ their spouses. These plans follow the same contribution and withdrawal rules as traditional employer-sponsored 401(k) plans, though special contribution rules apply if you’re self-employed.

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The Takeaway

There are several ways to try and find an old 401(k) account, but for most people, the best place to start is by contacting your old employers to see if they can help you. From there, you can also try reaching out to government agencies, tracking down old statements, or even searching through databases to see what you can find.

Saving for retirement is important for most people who are trying to reach their financial goals – as such, if you have money or assets in a retirement account, it may be worthwhile to try and track it down. Again, it may be worth consulting with a financial professional if you need help.

Ready to invest for your retirement? It’s easy to get started when you open a traditional or Roth IRA with SoFi. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

Help grow your nest egg with a SoFi IRA.

FAQ

Is it possible to lose your 401(k)?

It’s possible to lose money from your 401(k) if you’re cashing it out and taking a big tax hit or your investments suffer losses. But simply changing jobs doesn’t mean your old 401(k) is gone for good. It does, however, mean that you may need to spend time locating it if it’s been a while since you changed jobs.

Do I need my social security number to find an old 401(k)?

Generally, yes, you’ll need your Social Security number to find a lost 401(k) account. This is because your Social Security number is used to verify your identity and ensure that the plan you’re inquiring about actually belongs to you.

What happens to an unclaimed 401(k)?

Unclaimed 401(k) accounts may be liquidated or converted to cash if enough time passes, and that cash could be transferred to a state government, where it will be held as unclaimed property.

Can a financial advisor find old 401(k) accounts?

A financial advisor may be able to help, but the simplest way to find old 401(k) accounts is contacting your former employer. It’s possible your money may still be in your old plan and if not, your previous employer or plan administrator may be able to tell you where it’s been moved to.


Photo credit: iStock/svetikd

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INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

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What Is 401(k) Matching and How Does It Work?

Matching in 401(k) retirement accounts involves an employee making a contribution to the account, and their employer mirroring that contribution — or matching it. A 401(k) is a mechanism for saving retirement funds by making pre-tax contributions through deductions from payroll.

Some plans offer a 401(k) employer match, which can be the equivalent of getting “free money” from an employer. That can help increase an investor’s retirement savings over time.

What Is 401(k) Matching?

Matching a 401(k) contribution means that an employer matches or mirrors an employee’s contribution to their retirement account, typically up to a certain percentage. In effect, if an employee contributes $1 to their 401(k), an employer would also contribute $1, thereby “matching” the contribution. But again, there are limits to how much employers are generally willing to match.

There are certain advantages to 401(k) matching.

For one, investment gains and elective deferrals to 401(k) plans are not subject to federal income tax until they’re distributed, which is typically when:

•   The participant reaches the age of 59 ½

•   The participant becomes disabled, deceased, or otherwise has a severance from employment

•   The plan terminates and no subsequent plan is established by the employer

•   The participant incurs a financial hardship

Second, elective deferrals are 100% vested. The participant owns 100% of the money in their account, and the employer cannot take it back or forfeit it for any reason.

And third, participants choose how to invest their 401(k). The plans are mainly self-directed, meaning participants decide how they’d like to invest the money in their account. This could mean mutual funds or exchange-traded funds (ETFs) which invest in a wide array of sectors and companies, but typically doesn’t include investing in individual companies and stocks.

Investment tactics might vary from person to person, but by understanding their goals, investors can decide whether their portfolio will have time to withstand market ups and downs with some high-risk, high-reward investments, or if they should shift to a more conservative allocation as they come closer to retirement.

💡 Quick Tip: The advantage of opening a Roth IRA and a tax-deferred account like a 401(k) or traditional IRA is that by the time you retire, you’ll have tax-free income from your Roth, and taxable income from the tax-deferred account. This can help with tax planning.

Boost your retirement contributions with a 1% match.

SoFi IRAs now get a 1% match on every dollar you deposit, up to the annual contribution limits. Open an account today and get started.


Only offers made via ACH are eligible for the match. ACATs, wires, and rollovers are not included.

How Does 401(k) Matching Work?

A 401(k) match is an employee benefit that allows an employer to contribute a certain amount to their employee’s 401(k) plan. The match can be based on a percentage of the employee’s contribution, up to a certain portion of their total salary or a set dollar amount, depending on the terms of the plan.

So, some employers might offer a dollar-for-dollar match, while others might offer matching based on a percentage, or a partial-match. Others may not offer any type of match.

That’s important to keep in mind: Not all employers offer this benefit, and some have prerequisites for participating in the match, such as a minimum required contribution or a cap up to a certain amount.

Meeting with an HR representative or a benefits administrator is a one way to get a better idea of what’s possible. Learning the maximum percent of salary the company will contribute is a start, then the employee can set or increase their contribution accordingly to maximize the employer match benefit.

401(k) Matching Example

Many employers use a match formula to determine their 401(k) matches (assuming they offer it at all). Some formulas are more common than others, too, which can help us with an example.

Consider this: Many 401(k) plans use a single-tier match formula, with $0.50 on the dollar on the first 6% of pay being common. But others use multi-tier match formulas, e.g., dollar-on-dollar on the first 3% of pay and $0.50 on the dollar on the next 2% of pay.

For the sake of breaking a few things down, here’s a retirement saving scenario that can illuminate how 401(k) matching works in real life:

Let’s say a person is 30 years old, with a salary of $50,000, contributing 3% of their salary (or $1,500) to a 401(k). Let’s also say they keep making $50,000 and contributing 3% every year until they’re 65. They will have put $52,500 into their 401(k) in those 35 years.

Now let’s say they opt into an employer match with a dollar-for-dollar up to 3% formula. Putting aside the likelihood of an increase in the value of the investments, they’ll have saved $105,000 — with $52,500 in free contributions from their employer.

That, effectively, is a no-cost way to increase retirement savings by 100%.

Average 401(k) Match

Average 401(k) matches is generally around 4% or 5%, and can vary from year to year. With that in mind, workers who are getting an employer match in that range, or within a broader range — perhaps 3% to 6% — are likely getting a “good” match.

But again, considering that some employers don’t offer any match at all, the chance to secure almost any type of match could be considered good for some investors.

Contribution Limits When 401(k) Matching

When deciding how much to contribute to a 401(k) plan, many factors might be considered to take advantage of a unique savings approach:

•   If a company offers a 401(k) employer match, the participant might consider contributing enough to meet whatever the minimum match requirements are.

•   If a participant is closer to retirement age, they’ll probably have a pretty good idea of what they already have saved and what they need to reach their retirement goals. An increase in contributions can make a difference, and maxing out their 401(k) might be a solid strategy.

A retirement calculator can also be helpful in determining what the right contribution amount is for a specific financial situation.

In addition to the uncertainty that can come with choosing how much to contribute to a 401(k), there’s the added pressure of potential penalties for going over the maximum 401(k) contribution limit.

Three common limits to 401(k) contributions:

1.    Elective deferral limits: Contribution amounts chosen by an employee and contributed to a 401(k) plan by the employer. In 2024, participants can contribute up to $23,000. In 2024, participants can contribute up to $23,000. In 2023, participants can contribute up to $22,500.

2.    Catch-up contribution limits: After the age of 50, participants can contribute more to their 401(k) with catch-up contributions. In 2024 and 2023, participants can make up to $7,500 in catch-up contributions.

3.    Employer contribution limits: An employer can also make contributions and matches to a 401(k). The combined limit (not including catch-up contributions) on employer and employee contributions in 2024 is $69,000 and in 2023 is $66,000.

If participants think their total deferrals will exceed the limit for that particular year, the IRS recommends notifying the plan to request the difference (an “excess deferral”) “be paid out of any of the plans that permit these distributions. The plan must then pay the employee that amount by April 15 of the following year (or an earlier date specified in the plan).”

💡 Quick Tip: Did you know that opening a brokerage account typically doesn’t come with any setup costs? Often, the only requirement to open a brokerage account — aside from providing personal details — is making an initial deposit.

401(k) Vesting Schedules

Vesting ” means “ownership” in a retirement plan. The employee will vest, or own, some percent of their account balance. In the case of a 401(k), being 100% vested means they’ve met their employer’s vesting schedule requirements to ensure complete ownership of their funds.

Vesting schedules, determined by 401(k) plan documents, can lay out certain employer vesting restrictions that range from immediate vesting to 100% vesting after three years to a schedule that increases the vested percentage based on years of service. Either way, all employees must be 100% vested if a plan is terminated by the employer or upon reaching the plan’s standard retirement age.

Tips on Making the Most of 401(k) Matching

Here are some things to keep in mind when trying to make the most of 401(k) matching.

Remember: It’s “Free” Money

An employer match is one part of the overall compensation package and another way to maximize the amount of money an employer pays their employees. Those employees could be turning their backs on free money by not contributing to an employer-matched 401(k) plan.

You Can Reduce Taxable Income

According to FINRA, “with pre-tax contributions, every dollar you save will reduce your current taxable income by an equal amount, which means you will owe less in income taxes for the year. But your take-home pay will go down by less than a dollar.”

If a participant contributed $1,500 a year to a 401(k), they’d only owe taxes on their current salary minus that amount, which could save some serious money as that salary grows.

Every Dollar Counts

It can be tempting to avoid contributing to your retirement plan, and instead, use the money for something you want or need now. But remember: The more time your money has to potentially grow while it’s invested, the more likely you are to reach your financial goals sooner. While that’s not guaranteed, every dollar you can save or invest now for future use is a dollar you don’t need to save or invest later.

The Takeaway

A 401(k) match is an employee benefit that allows an employer to contribute a certain amount to their employee’s 401(k) plan. Matches can be based on a percentage of the employee’s contribution, up to a certain portion of their total salary or a set dollar amount, depending on the terms of the plan.

Taking advantage of employer matches in a 401(k) plan can help workers reach their financial goals sooner, as a match is, in effect, “free money.” If you’re considering how matches can help bolster your investment strategy, it may be worth discussing with a financial professional.

Ready to invest for your retirement? It’s easy to get started when you open a traditional or Roth IRA with SoFi. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

Help grow your nest egg with a SoFi IRA.

FAQ

How much should I match 401(k)?

It’ll be up to the individual investor, but to make the most of a 401(k) match, workers should likely try to contribute as much as possible up to their employer’s match — it may be worth discussing with a financial professional for additional guidance.

What does 6% 401(k) match mean?

A 6% 401(k) match means that an employer is willing to match up to 6% of an employee’s total salary or compensation in their 401(k) account through matching contributions.

What is a good 401(k) match?

A good 401(k) match could be in the 3% to 6% range, as average employer matches tend to be between 4% and 5%.

Is a 3% match good? Is a 4% match good?

Generally speaking, a 3% match could be considered “good,” as could a 4% match. On average, employers match somewhere between 4% and 5%, and when you get down to it, almost any employer match is “good.”

How do I maximize my 401(k) match?

Maximizing your 401(k) match involves contributing enough to get at least your employer’s full match, whatever that match may be. You should be able to change your contribution levels through your provider, or by speaking with your employer.


SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Claw Promotion: Customer must fund their Active Invest account with at least $25 within 30 days of opening the account. Probability of customer receiving $1,000 is 0.028%. See full terms and conditions.

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Guide to 457 Retirement Plans

Guide to 457 Retirement Plans

A 457 plan — technically a 457(b) plan — is similar to a 401(k) retirement account. It’s an employer-provided retirement savings plan that you fund with pre-tax contributions, and the money you save grows tax-deferred until it’s withdrawn in retirement.

But a 457 plan differs from a 401(k) in some significant ways. While any employer may offer a 401(k), 457 plans are designed specifically for state and local government employees, as well as employees of certain tax-exempt organizations. That said, a 457 has fewer limitations on withdrawals.

This guide will help you decide whether a 457 plan is right for you.

What Is a 457 Retirement Plan?

A 457 plan is a type of deferred compensation plan that’s used by certain employees when saving for retirement. The key thing to remember is that a 457 plan isn’t considered a “qualified retirement plan” based on the federal law known as ERISA (from the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974).

These plans can be established by state and local governments or by certain tax-exempt organizations. The types of employees that can participate in 457 savings plans include:

•   Firefighters

•   Police officers

•   Public safety officers

•   City administration employees

•   Public works employees

Note that a 457 plan is not used by federal employees; instead, the federal government offers a Thrift Savings Plan (TSP) to those workers. Nor is it exactly the same thing as a 401(k) plan or a 403(b), though there are some similarities between these types of plans.

Boost your retirement contributions with a 1% match.

SoFi IRAs now get a 1% match on every dollar you deposit, up to the annual contribution limits. Open an account today and get started.


Only offers made via ACH are eligible for the match. ACATs, wires, and rollovers are not included.

How a 457 Plan Works

A 457 plan works by allowing employees to defer part of their compensation into the plan through elective salary deferrals. These deferrals are made on a pre-tax basis, though some plans can also allow employees to choose a Roth option (similar to a Roth 401(k)).

The money that’s deferred is invested and grows tax-deferred until the employee is ready to withdraw it. The types of investments offered inside a 457 plan can vary by the plan but typically include a mix of mutual funds. Some 457 retirement accounts may also offer annuities as an investment option.

Unlike 401(k) plans, which require employees to wait until age 59 ½ before making qualified withdrawals, 457 plans allow withdrawals at whatever age the employee retires. The IRS doesn’t impose a 10% early withdrawal penalty on withdrawals made before age 59 ½ if you retire (or take a hardship distribution). Regular income tax still applies to the money you withdraw, except in the case of Roth 457 plans, which allow for tax-free qualified distributions.

So, for example, say you’re a municipal government employee. You’re offered a 457 plan as part of your employee benefits package. You opt to defer 15% of your compensation into the plan each year, starting at age 25. Once you turn 50, you make your regular contributions along with catch-up contributions. You decide to retire at age 55, at which point you’ll be able to withdraw your savings or roll it over to an IRA.

Who Is Eligible for a 457 Retirement Plan?

In order to take advantage of 457 plan benefits you need to work for an eligible employer. Again, this includes state and local governments as well as certain tax-exempt organizations.

There are no age or income restrictions on when you can contribute to a 457 plan, unless you’re still working at age 73. A 457 retirement account follows required minimum distribution rules, meaning you’re required to begin taking money out of the plan once you turn 73. At this point, you can no longer make new contributions.

A big plus with 457 plans: Your employer could offer a 401(k) plan and a 457 plan as retirement savings options. You don’t have to choose one over the other either. If you’re able to make contributions to both plans simultaneously, you could do so up to the maximum annual contribution limits.

Pros & Cons of 457 Plans

A 457 plan can be a valuable resource when planning for retirement expenses. Contributions grow tax-deferred and as mentioned, you could use both a 457 plan and a 401(k) to save for retirement. If you’re unsure whether a 457 savings plan is right for you, weighing the pros and cons can help you to decide.

Pros of 457 Plans

Here are some of the main advantages of using a 457 plan to save for retirement.

No Penalty for Early Withdrawals

Taking money from a 401(k) or Individual Retirement Account before age 59 ½ can result in a 10% early withdrawal tax penalty. That’s on top of income tax you might owe on the distribution. With a 457 retirement plan, this rule doesn’t apply so if you decide to retire early, you can tap into your savings penalty-free.

Special Catch-up Limit

A 457 plan has annual contribution limits and catch-up contribution limits but they also include a special provision for employees who are close to retirement age. This provision allows them to potentially double the amount of money they put into their plan in the final three years leading up to retirement.

Loans May Be Allowed

If you need money and you don’t qualify for a hardship distribution from a 457 plan you may still be able to take out a loan from your retirement account (although there are downsides to this option). The maximum loan amount is 50% of your vested balance or $50,000, whichever is less. Loans must be repaid within five years.

Cons of 457 Plans

Now that you’ve considered the positives, here are some of the drawbacks to consider with a 457 savings plan.

Not Everyone Is Eligible

If you don’t work for an eligible employer then you won’t have access to a 457 plan. You may, however, have other savings options such as a 401k or 403(b) plan instead which would allow you to set aside money for retirement on a tax-advantaged basis. And of course, you can always open an IRA.

Investment Options May Be Limited

The range of investment options offered in 457 plans aren’t necessarily the same across the board. Depending on which plan you’re enrolled in, you may find that your investment selections are limited or that the fees you’ll pay for those investments are on the higher side.

Matching Is Optional

While an employer may choose to offer a matching contribution to a 457 retirement account, that doesn’t mean they will. Matching contributions are valuable because they’re essentially free money. If you’re not getting a match, then it could take you longer to reach your retirement savings goals.

💡 Quick Tip: Before opening any investment account, consider what level of risk you are comfortable with. If you’re not sure, start with more conservative investments, and then adjust your portfolio as you learn more.

457 Plan Contribution Limits

The IRS establishes annual contribution limits for 457 plans. There are three contribution amounts:

•   Basic annual contribution

•   Catch-up contribution

•   Special catch-up contribution

Annual contribution limits and catch-up contributions follow the same guidelines established for 401(k) plans.

The special catch-up contribution is an additional amount that’s designated for employees who are within three years of retirement. Not all 457 retirement plans allow for special catch-up contributions.

Here are the 457 savings plan maximum contribution limits for 2023 and 2024.

2023

2024

Annual Contribution Up to 100% of an employees’ includable compensation or $22,500, whichever is less Up to 100% of an employees’ includable compensation or $23,000, whichever is less
Catch-up Contribution Employees 50 and over can contribute an additional $7,500 Employees 50 and over can contribute an additional $7,500
Special Catch-up Contribution $22,500 or the basic annual limit plus the amount of the basic limit not used in prior years, whichever is less* $23,000 or the basic annual limit plus the amount of the basic limit not used in prior years, whichever is less*

*This option is not available if the employee is already making age-50-or-over catch-up contributions.

457 vs 403(b) Plans

The biggest difference between a 457 plan and a 403(b) plan is who they’re designed for. A 403(b) plan is a type of retirement plan that’s offered to public school employees, including those who work at state colleges and universities, and employees of certain tax-exempt organizations. Certain ministers may establish a 403(b) plan as well. This type of plan can also be referred to as a tax-sheltered annuity or TSA plan.

Like 457 plans, 403(b) plans are funded with pre-tax dollars and contributions grow tax-deferred over time. These contributions can be made through elective salary deferrals or nonelective employer contributions. Employees can opt to make after-tax contributions or designated Roth contributions to their plan. Employers are not required to make contributions.

The annual contribution limits to 403(b) plans, including catch-up contributions, are the same as those for 457 plans. A 403(b) plan can also offer special catch-up contributions, but they work a little differently and only apply to employees who have at least 15 years of service.

Employees can withdraw money once they reach age 59 ½ and they’ll pay tax on those distributions. A 403(b) plan may allow for loans and hardship distributions or early withdrawals because the employee becomes disabled or leaves their job.

Investing for Retirement With SoFi

When weighing retirement plan options, a 457 retirement account may be one possibility. That’s not the only way to save and invest, however. If you don’t have a retirement plan at work or you’re self-employed, you can still open a traditional or Roth IRA to grow wealth.

Ready to invest for your retirement? It’s easy to get started when you open a traditional or Roth IRA with SoFi. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

Help grow your nest egg with a SoFi IRA.

FAQ

How does a 457 plan pay out?

If you have a 457 savings plan, you can take money out of your account before age 59 ½ without triggering an early withdrawal tax penalty in certain situations. Those distributions are taxable at your ordinary income tax rate, however. Like other tax-advantaged plans, 457 plans have required minimum distributions (RMDs), but they begin at age 73.

What are the rules for a 457 plan?

The IRS has specific rules for which types of employers can establish 457 plans; these include state and local governments and certain tax-exempt organizations. There are also rules on annual contributions, catch-up contributions and special catch-up contributions. In terms of taxation, 457 plans follow the same guidelines as 401(k) or 403(b) plans: Contributions are made pre-tax; the employee pays taxes on withdrawals.

When can you take money out of a 457 plan?

You can take money out of a 457 plan once you reach age 59 ½. Withdrawals are also allowed prior to age 59 ½ without a tax penalty if you’re experiencing a financial hardship or you leave your employer. Early withdrawals are still subject to ordinary income tax.


Photo credit: iStock/Nomad

Third-Party Brand Mentions: No brands, products, or companies mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third-party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.

Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

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