How to Know When to Sell a Stock

Knowing when to sell a stock is a complex enterprise, even for the most sophisticated investors. In a perfect world you’d sell a stock when you’d made a profit and wanted to capture the gains. But even that scenario raises questions of your target amount (have you made enough?) and timing (would it be better to hold the stock longer?).

Similar questions arise when the stock is losing value. Is it a true loser or is the company just underperforming? Should you sell and cut your losses — or would you be locking in losses just before a rebound?

Adding to the above there are questions of personal need, opportunity costs, tax considerations, and more that investors must keep in mind as they decide when to sell their stocks. Fortunately there is a fairly finite list of considerations, as well as different order types like market sell, stop-loss, stop-limit, and others that give investors some control over the decision of when to sell a stock.

Key Points

•   Knowing when to sell a stock is complex, considering factors like profit, timing, personal needs, taxes, and investment style.

•   Factors to consider when deciding to sell a stock include goals, company fundamentals, economic trends, volatility, and taxes.

•   Some investors rarely sell stocks, while others sell more frequently based on their investment goals and desired returns.

•   Reasons to sell a stock include loss of faith in the company, opportunity cost, high valuation, personal reasons, and tax considerations.

•   Reasons to hold onto a stock include potential growth, belief in long-term performance, economic forecasts, and avoiding emotional decision-making.

When Is a Good Time to Sell Stocks?

There are a few ways to approach the question of when to sell stocks. Risk, style, investing goals, and how much time you have are all critical variables. Perhaps the most relevant answer is “when you need to,” as that criterion alone requires specific calculations that depend on your overall plan, the type of investor you are, your risk tolerance, market conditions (i.e. stock market fluctuations), and of course the stock itself.

When deciding when to sell a stock, you might weigh:

•   How the stock fits into your goals

•   Company fundamentals

•   Economic trends

•   Your hoped-for profit

•   Volatility and/or losses

•   Taxes

In addition, whether you sell your stocks will boil down to your investment style — are you day trading or employing a buy-and-hold strategy? — how much risk you’re willing to assume, and your overall time horizon and other goals (i.e. tax considerations).

Many investors who are simply investing for retirement may rarely sell stocks. After all, over time the average stock market return has been about 10% (not taking inflation into account).

And while there are no guarantees, in general the old saying that “time in the market is better than timing the market” tends to hold true.

Others, who are looking to turn a profit on a weekly or monthly basis, may sell much more frequently. It’s more a matter of looking at what you’re hoping to generate from your investments, and how fast you’re hoping to generate it.

💡 Quick Tip: If you’re opening a brokerage account for the first time, consider starting with an amount of money you’re prepared to lose. Investing always includes the risk of loss, and until you’ve gained some experience, it’s probably wise to start small.

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8 Reasons You Might Sell a Stock

There are several reasons that could prompt you to think about selling your stock.

1. When You No Longer Believe in the Company

When you bought shares of a certain company, you presumably did so because you believed that the company was promising and you wanted to invest in its stock, and/or that the share price was reasonable. But if you start to believe that the underlying fundamentals of the business are in decline, it might be time to sell the stock and reinvest those funds in a company with a better outlook.

There are many reasons you may lose faith in a stock’s underlying fundamentals. For example, the company may have declining profit margins or decreasing revenue, increased competition, new leadership taking the company in a different direction, or legal problems.

Part of the task here is differentiating what might be a short-term blip in the stock price due to a bad quarter or even a bad year, and what feels like it could be the start of a more sustained change within the business.

Recommended: Tips on Evaluating Stock Performance

2. Due to Opportunity Cost

Every investment decision you make comes at the cost of some other decision you can’t make. When you invest your money in one thing, the tradeoff is that you cannot invest that money in something else.

So, for each stock you buy you are doing so at the cost of not buying some other asset.

Given the performance of the stock you’re currently holding, it might be worth evaluating it to see if there could be a more profitable way to deploy those same dollars. Exchange-traded funds (ETFs) that provide easy access to other asset classes — like bonds or commodities — have also created competition to simply holding company stocks.

This is easier said than done, however, because we are often emotionally invested in the stocks that we’ve already purchased. Nonetheless, it’s important to include an evaluation of opportunity costs as part of your overall decision about when to sell a stock.

3. Because the Valuation Is High

Often, stocks are evaluated in terms of their price-to-earnings (P/E) ratios. The market price per share is on the top of the equation, and on the bottom of the equation is the earnings per share. This ratio allows investors to make an apples-to-apples comparison of the relative earnings at different companies.

The higher the number, the higher the price as compared to the earnings of that company. A P/E ratio alone might not tell you whether a stock is going to do well or poorly in the future. But when paired with other data, such as historical ratios for that same stock, or the earnings multiples of their competitors or a benchmark market, like the S&P 500 Index, it may be an indicator that the stock is currently overpriced and that it may be time to sell the stock.

A P/E ratio could increase due to one of two reasons: Because the price has increased without a corresponding increase in the expected earnings for that company, or because the earnings expectations have been lowered without a corresponding decrease in the price of the stock. Either of these scenarios tells us that there could be trouble for the stock on the horizon, though nothing’s a sure bet.

4. For Personal Reasons

It’s also possible that you may need to sell a stock for personal reasons, such as:

•   You need the cash (owing to a job loss, emergency, etc.)

•   You no longer believe in the mission of the company

•   Your risk tolerance has changed and you’re moving away from equities

•   You want to try another strategy other than active investing, for example automated investing, where your investment choices are largely guided by the input of a sophisticated algorithm.

Since personal reasons may also have emotions attached to them, it’s wise to balance out your personal feelings with an evaluation of other reasons to sell the stock.

5. Because of Taxes

Employing a tax-efficient investing strategy shouldn’t outweigh making decisions based on other priorities. Still, it’s important to take taxes into account when making decisions about which stocks to keep and which stocks to sell.

When purchased outside of a retirement account, gains on the sale of an investment are subject to capital gains tax rules. It may be possible to offset some capital gains with capital losses, which are triggered by selling stocks at a loss.

This strategy is known as tax-loss harvesting.

For example, if an investor sells a security for a $25,000 gain, and sells another security at a $10,000 loss, the loss could be applied so that the investor would only see a capital gain of $15,000 ($25,000 – $10,000).

If you’re considering this as part of a self-directed trading strategy, you may want to consult a tax professional, as the rules can be complicated in terms of short-term vs. long-term gains, replacing a stock you sell with one that’s substantially different, as well as how to carryover losses.

•   Understanding how a tax loss can be carried forward

The difference between capital gains and capital losses is called a net capital gain. If losses exceed gains, that’s a net capital loss.

•   If an investor has an overall net capital loss for the year, they can deduct up to $3,000 against other kinds of income — including their salary and interest income.

•   Any excess net capital loss can be carried over to subsequent years (known as a tax-loss carryover or carry forward) and deducted against capital gains and up to $3,000 of other kinds of income — depending on the circumstances.

•   For those who are married filing separately, the annual net capital loss deduction limit is only $1,500.

Recommended: Unrealized Gains and Losses Explained

6. To Rebalance a Portfolio

If you’re looking to make some tweaks to your investment strategy for one reason or another, you may want to sell some stocks as a part of a strategy to rebalance your portfolio. The reason for rebalancing is to keep your portfolio anchored on the asset allocation that you prefer.

As some investments rise and fall over time, your asset allocation naturally shifts. Some asset classes might exceed the percentage you originally chose, based on your risk tolerance.

Investors are encouraged to rebalance their portfolios regularly — but not too often — as market and economic conditions can and do change. An annual rebalancing strategy is common.

This typically involves taking a look at your desired asset allocation, thinking about your risk tolerance (and how it may have changed), and deciding how you may want to change the different asset classes that comprise your portfolio, if at all.

7. Because You Made a Mistake

You may want to sell stocks if you simply made a mistake. Perhaps the company or sector is not a priority for you, or not a good bet in your eye. Maybe a stock is too risk or volatile. Maybe you bought into a company because it was in the news, or friends were raving about it (a.k.a. FOMO trading).

All of these conditions can happen to investors, and knowing when to sell a stock sometimes means owning up to a mistake.

Recommended: Guide to Financially Preparing for Retirement

8. You’ve Met Your Goals

In the best case, of course, you might want to sell a stock once you’ve met your goals. Perhaps the price is right, or you’re ready to retire, or you’ve crossed some other threshold where you no longer need to hold onto the stock.
In that case, the decision to sell will likely come down to timing and taxes. Or, if you’re preparing to retire, you may also want to consider whether you’re holding the stock in a tax-deferred account or not.

💡 Quick Tip: When you’re actively investing in stocks it’s important to ask what types of fees you might have to pay. For example, brokers may charge a flat fee for trading stocks, or require some commission for every trade. Taking the time to manage investment costs can be beneficial over the long term.

4 Reasons You Might Not Want to Sell a Stock

In addition to weighing possible reasons for selling a stock, there are counter arguments for holding onto your shares.

1. Because a Stock Went Up

As mentioned, most stock prices will go up at some point, and you may want to hold onto your stock in the hope that it will continue to grow. That’s a valid reason, especially if you’re thinking long term.

Just bear in mind that there are no guarantees, and past performance is no guarantee of future results, as the industry mantra goes. So even if a stock’s price is rising, you may want to have a few other reasons for not selling the stock.

2. Because a Stock Went Down

Just as a stock may go up, the price will also go down at some point. At those moments it may be tempting to cut your losses before you accrue even bigger ones — especially if you believe that the stock’s value will continue to drop.

But, again, it may be helpful to think longer term rather than what’s happening today. The stock price might rebound, and you may only lock your losses in by selling. Analyzing the company fundamentals as well as the economic climate can help you make this decision.

Recommended: What Happens If a Stock Goes to Zero?

3. Because of an Economic Forecast

Economic forecasting uses a range of economic indicators — such as interest rates, consumer confidence, the rate of inflation, unemployment rates — to predict or anticipate economic growth. But economic forecasting is not an exact science, and it’s wise to consider other factors.

In addition, economic forecasts come and go. This is especially the case in the short term. Therefore, changes in stock prices may have as much to do with investor sentiment or outside forces (such as political or economic events or announcements) as they do with the health of the underlying company.

4. Because Everyone Else Is Selling

Understanding the impact of other investors on your own decisions is equally important. While you may think you’re capable of remaining calm in the face of media hype and headlines, as numerous behavioral finance studies have shown it’s surprisingly easy to get caught up in what other investors are doing.

If you find yourself questioning your own investment plan or your own logic, think twice to make sure the impulse to sell isn’t brought on by strong emotions or by the opinions of others.

Selling a Stock 101

These are the basic steps required to cash out and sell stocks:

1.    Whether by phone or via an online brokerage account platform, let your broker know which of your stock holdings you’d like to sell.

2.    Specify which order type (more on that below). This can determine at what price level your stock is sold.

3.    Fill out any other information your broker requires in order to initiate the sale. For instance, some accounts may have a “time in force” option, or when the order expires. Keep in mind, the trade date is different from the settlement date. It usually takes a couple of days for a trade to settle.

4.    Click “Sell” or “Submit Order.”

Different Sell Order Types

There are several different stock order types that can be useful in different situations.

Market Sell Order

This order type involves selling a stock immediately. The order will be executed without the investor specifying any price level to sell at. It’s important for investors to know however that because share prices are constantly shifting, they might not get the exact price they see on their stock-data feed. There may also be a difference due to delayed versus real-time stock quotes to consider as well.

Generally speaking, the advantage of using a market order is that your trade is likely to be executed quickly. That’s especially true for bigger or more popular stocks, which tend to be more liquid. But again: the biggest potential drawback is that you might not get the exact price you thought you were due to market volatility.

Limit Sell Order

Limit orders involve selling a stock at a specific price. For example, if you’re buying stocks, you can specify a price that you’re willing to pay — the trade will then be executed at that price, or lower.

If you’re selling stocks, the inverse is true — your stock will be sold at the specified price, or higher.

The upside to using limit orders is that they give investors some semblance of control by allowing them to name their price. The investor can then walk away, and let their brokerage handle the execution for them.

The downsides, though, include the fact that the trade may never execute if the specified price isn’t reached, and that using limit orders may take some practice and experience to properly execute.

Stop-Loss Sell Order

A stop-loss order is a level at which an automatic sell order kicks in. In other words, an investor specifies a price at which the broker should start selling, should the stock hit that level. This can also be referred to as a “sell-stop order.” But note that there are other types of stop-loss orders, such as buy-stop orders, and trailing stop-loss orders.

Stop-loss orders can be useful in that they can prevent investors from losing more than they’re comfortable with, or that they can afford to lose. They, as the name implies, are a very useful tool to prevent losses. But depending on overall market conditions, they can also work against an investor. If there’s a short-term drop in share prices, for instance, it’s possible that an investor could miss out on gains if share prices rebound in the medium or long term.

Stop-Limit Sell Order

A stop-limit sell order is an order that’s executed if your stock’s price drops to a certain price, but only if the shares can be sold at or above the limit price specified. They are, in effect, a sort of bridge between stop and limit orders. These types of orders can help investors dodge the risk that a stop order executed at an unexpected price, giving them more control over the price at which a sell order will execute.

Different Ways to Sell Stocks

There are desktop platforms and mobile phone apps that offer brokerage services. These are likely the most common platforms individual or retail investors use to currently buy or sell stocks. However, another option is through a financial advisor.

Financial advisors are professionals who have been entrusted to handle certain financial responsibilities and you can send them a stock sale order to execute. They can do a number of other things for you, too, including proffer advice and help you formulate an investing strategy. But there are costs to using financial advisors, so it may not be worth it, depending on how involved in the markets you are.

The Takeaway

There are times when it may be a good idea to sell your stocks, and others when it’s not. For example, if you’ve lost faith in a company, need a cash infusion, or are doing some portfolio rebalancing, it may be a good time to sell shares of a certain stock.

On the other hand, if you’re unnerved that your stock’s price fell after a bad earnings report, you may want to hold on and let things play out. It’s difficult, and is a true test of your risk tolerance. But over time, it should become easier and more natural as you gain experience as an investor.

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FAQ

How can you tell when to sell a stock?

There’s no exact science, and determining whether it’s a good time to sell a stock will come down to the individual investor’s strategy, risk tolerance, and time horizon. However, you can also keep an eye on a stock’s valuation, consider your opportunity costs, and weigh other factors in order to make the decision.

Should you ever sell stocks when they’re down?

You can sell stocks when they lose value for any number of reasons, but it’s wise to make sure you’re doing so as a part of an overall investing strategy, e.g. tax-loss harvesting, and not simply because you’re making an emotional or impulsive decision based on current market conditions.

How much profit do I need before I sell a stock?

There’s no exact science or answer to determine how much of a return you’d need to see before you sell a stock. That’s up to the specific investor, and there may be times when selling a stock at a loss is preferable for tax purposes or other reasons.


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What Is Stock Volatility and How Do You Measure It?

Key Points

•   Stock volatility refers to the variation in a stock’s price from its mean, and it can provide opportunities for investors.

•   Standard deviation, beta, VIX, and maximum drawdown are common measures used to gauge stock volatility.

•   Standard deviation measures how far a stock’s performance deviates from its average, while beta compares a stock’s volatility to the overall market.

•   Factors such as company performance, investor behavior, global events, seasonality, and market cycles can contribute to stock market volatility.

•   Balancing risk and reward, diversifying your portfolio, sticking to long-term investing strategies, avoiding timing the market, and considering dollar-cost averaging are effective ways to manage volatility when investing.

What Is Stock Volatility?

Stock volatility is often defined as big swings in price, but technically the volatility of a stock refers to how much its price tends to vary from the mean. The same is true of stock market volatility; when an index tends to perform a certain percentage above or below the mean, it’s a signal of volatility.

Generally, the higher the volatility of a stock, the more risk an investor incurs when they purchase or hold it. But volatility can also provide opportunities for some investors.

How to Measure Stock Volatility

There are a handful of ways to measure stock volatility. Each metric gives investors different information, and a different view of stock market fluctuations.

Standard Deviation

Standard deviation is a common stock volatility measure; it refers to how far a stock’s performance varies from its average. Investors often measure an investment’s volatility by the standard deviation of returns compared with a broader market index or past returns. Standard deviation measures the extent to which a data point deviates from an expected value, i.e. the mean return.

Beta

Beta is another way to measure volatility; it captures systematic risk, which refers to the volatility of a security (or of a portfolio) versus the market as a whole.

For example, beta can measure the volatility of a stock versus its benchmark (e.g. the S&P 500 or another relevant index). If a stock or mutual fund has a beta of 1.0, its inherent volatility is no different than the market at large. If the beta of a stock is higher or lower than its benchmark, that indicates higher or lower volatility.

Recommended: How to Find Portfolio Beta

VIX

The Cboe Global Markets Volatility Index, known as the VIX for short, is a tool used to measure implied volatility in the market. In simple terms, the VIX index tells investors how professional investors feel about the market at any given time.

The VIX Index is a real-time calculation that measures expected volatility in the stock market. One of the most recognized barometers of fluctuations in financial markets, the VIX measures how much volatility investing experts expect to see in the market over the next 30 days. This measurement reflects real-time quotes of S&P 500 Index (SPX) call option and put option prices.

Maximum Drawdown

Maximum drawdown, or MDD, is another stock volatility measure, and can give investors a sense of how much downside risk exists for a given stock (though not the risks of the stock market overall). It basically measures the maximum fall in value that a stock has seen in the past, and is reflected in the difference between that maximum trough, and the highest peak in value before its value fell.

You may recognize the terms peak and trough when discussing the business cycle and bull markets, too. MDD is a peak-to-trough calculation, in other words. It’s a simpler calculation than standard deviation, too:

MDD= Trough Value−Peak Value / Peak Value​

💡 Quick Tip: Before opening any investment account, consider what level of risk you are comfortable with. If you’re not sure, start with more conservative investments, and then adjust your portfolio as you learn more.

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Using Standard Deviation to Calculate Volatility

You can use the standard deviation and variance of returns to create a basic measure of stock volatility. This measure captures variance in price changes over a certain period of time, so you can gauge how far from the mean the stock price tends to go (i.e. how volatile it is).

Formula: σT = volatility, where:

σ = standard deviation of returns

T = number of time periods

1. To arrive at the variance, imagine a stock that starts in January with a monthly closing price of $10, and adds $1 per month. Month 1 = $10. Month 2 = $11. Month 3 = $12 … and so on, for all 12 months (or whatever time period you choose).

2. Add the stock price for each month, to arrive at a total of $186.

3. Divide $186 by the number of time periods (12 months in this case) to get an average stock price of $15.50 for the year.

4. Subtract the mean ($15.50) from each monthly value; include results that are negative numbers.

5. Square all the deviations (which will also remove negative numbers), and add them together to get the sum ($50.50); divide the sum by the number of time periods (in this case 12) to get a variance of $4.21.

6. Take the square root of $4.21 to get $2.05 = which is the standard deviation for this particular stock. Knowing this provides an important point of comparison for investors, because it indicates whether a stock’s price fluctuations could be within ‘normal’ ranges or too volatile.

Recommended: What Is a Stock?

Types of Stock Volatility

There are two common types of stock volatility that investors use to measure the riskiness of an investment: implied volatility and historical volatility. These two types of volatility are often used by options traders, who make trades based on the potential volatility of the options contract’s underlying asset.

Historical Volatility

Historical volatility (HV), also known as statistical volatility, is a measurement of the price dispersion of a financial security or index over a period of time. Investors calculate this by determining the average deviation from an average price. Historical volatility typically looks at daily returns, but some investors use it to look at intraday price changes.

As the name implies, historical volatility used past performance to assess present volatility. When a stock sees large daily price swings compared to its history, it will typically have a historical volatility reading. Historical volatility does not measure direction; it simply indicates the deviation from an average.

Implied Volatility

Implied volatility (IV) is a metric that captures the market’s expectation of future movements in the price of a security. Implied volatility employs a set of predictive factors to forecast the future changes of a security’s price.

Implied volatility doesn’t anticipate which way prices might move, up or down, only how likely the volatility will be.

What Causes Market Volatility?

The stock market is known for having boom-and-bust cycles, which is another way of describing stock market volatility. And there are numerous factors that can influence market volatility. Here are just a few:

•   Company Performance: Regarding individual stocks, events tied to the company’s performance can drive volatility in its shares. This can include countless factors including: earnings reports, a product announcement, a merger, a change in management, and much more.

•   Investor Behavior: Long periods of rising share prices tend to drive investors to take on more risk. They enter into more speculative positions and buy assets like high-risk stocks.

In doing so, investors may disregard their own risk tolerance, and make themselves more vulnerable to market shocks. This pattern can lead to market busts when investors need to sell their holdings en masse when the market is shaky.

•   Global Events: For instance, the early stages of the COVID pandemic in February and March 2020 created shockwaves in the markets. As economies across the globe shut down, investors began to sell off risky assets, bringing about high levels of volatility in the financial markets.

Governments enacted extraordinary fiscal and monetary stimulus programs to calm this volatility and bring stability to the markets.

But even as these efforts took effect, other global factors — the war in Ukraine impacting energy prices — also took a toll. And federal reserve interest rate increases during 2022 — instituted at the fastest rate in history in an effort to tamper inflation — likewise roiled the markets, causing stock volatility.

•   Seasonality: You’ve heard the old saying, “Sell in May and go away.” That’s a reflection of a phenomenon called market seasonality, which means that year in and year out there are certain patterns that tend to occur around the same times.

While seasonality certainly doesn’t guarantee any investment outcomes, some sectors do see more demand and greater production during specific times of year. Summer months tend to impact the travel sector; the fall might see an uptick in school-related consumer goods, and so on.

Depending on the year, this rise and fall of demand can impact volatility for some stocks.

•   Market Cycles: In a similar way, markets also have their cycles; these cycles emerge thanks to trends generated by what’s going on in different business sectors. For example, the rapid evolution of AI in 2023 and early 2024 may have sparked a bit of a market cycle in the tech sector, as the demand for certain products and technologies jumped.

That said, it’s difficult to spot a market cycle until it’s over. Sometimes what appears to be a cycle is simply a normal set of fluctuations. But the anticipation or perception of a cycle can drive volatility.

•   Liquidity: Other factors that can drive volatility include liquidity and the derivatives market. Stock liquidity is the ease with which an asset can be bought and sold without affecting prices. If an asset is tough to unload and gets sold at a significantly lower price, that could inject fear into the market and cause other investors to sell, ramping up volatility.

Separately, there’s sometimes a debate as to whether equity derivatives — contracts that are based on an underlying asset (e.g. futures and options) — can cause volatility. For instance, in 2020, investors debated whether large volumes of stock options trading caused sellers of the options, typically banks, to hedge themselves by buying stocks, exposing the market to sudden ups and downs when the banks had to purchase or sell shares quickly.

What Causes Stock Prices to Go Up?

As noted, any number of things can cause a stock’s price to go up — be it good or bad news. For instance, geopolitical events can cause certain stocks to appreciate in price, while others may fall. When there’s political instability, some investors seek safer investments and may pile into consumer staple stocks, or investments that track the price of precious metals.

When the economy is faring well, earnings season can be another time during which stock prices go up as companies report positive news to investors, who may, in turn, feel better about the economy overall, which can affect their investing decisions.

What Causes Stock Prices to Go Down?

Just as nearly anything and everything can drive stock prices up, there are countless factors that can likewise drive values down. That can include bad earnings reports from companies, or earnings data that doesn’t live up to expectations. Political or regulatory changes can also spook investors, who may sell certain stocks and drive prices down.

Again: Stock prices can go down for any and every reason, or no reason at all. This is as good a time as any to remind you that there really is no such thing as a completely safe investment.

💡 Quick Tip: How to manage potential risk factors in a self-directed investment account? Doing your research and employing strategies like dollar-cost averaging and diversification may help mitigate financial risk when trading stocks.

How to Manage Volatility When Investing

Let’s imagine that it’s 2007, and an individual has money invested in the U.S. stock market. Unfortunately, this investor is about to face one of the largest stock market crashes in history: The S&P 500 fell by 48% during the crash of 2008-2009.

This sort of dramatic drop in the stock market isn’t typical, and it can be traumatic even for the savviest and most experienced investor. So, the first step to handling stock market volatility is understanding that there will always be some price fluctuation.

The second step is to know one’s risk tolerance and financial goals, then invest, readjust, and rebalance your portfolio accordingly.

Balance Risk and Reward

Generally speaking, higher rewards sometimes come with higher risks. For example, younger investors in their 20s might want to target higher growth options and be open to more volatile stocks. They may have enough time to weather the gains and losses and, possibly, come out ahead over time.

The reverse is true for someone approaching retirement who wants stable portfolio returns. With a shorter time horizon there’s less time to recover from volatility, so investing in lower-risk securities may make more sense.
Some strategies offer ways that more cautious investors might take to mitigate volatility in their portfolios. One way is diversification.

Portfolio diversification involves investing your money across a range of different asset classes — such as stocks, bonds, and real estate — rather than concentrating all of it in one area. Studies have shown that by diversifying the assets in your portfolio, you may offset a certain amount of investment risk and thereby improve returns.

For example: Lower volatility stocks, such as utility or consumer staple companies, can add stability to a stock portfolio. Meanwhile, energy, technology, and consumer discretionary shares tend to be more turbulent because their businesses are more cyclical, or tied to the broader economy.

Another way to diversify one’s portfolio is to add bonds, alternative investments, or even cash. When deciding to add bonds or stocks to a portfolio, it’s helpful to know that the former is generally a less volatile asset class.

This is useful to know if you’re managing your own portfolio, or if you want to try automated investing, where a sophisticated algorithm provides different asset allocation options in pre-set portfolios.

There are a few other things to take into consideration when managing volatility in your portfolio.

Assess Risk Tolerance

A big part of effectively managing stock volatility as it relates to your portfolio is knowing your limits, or, as discussed, your risk tolerance. How much risk can you actually handle when it comes down to it?

Every investor will need to give that question some thought when deciding how to deploy their money.

While bigger risks often come with bigger rewards, when the market does experience a downturn, there’s the outstanding question of whether you’ll stick to your investing strategy or cut and run. Each investor’s risk tolerance will be different, but it’s important to think about how you can actually handle the risk you take on when investing.

Stick to Long-Term Investing Strategies

One way to manage market volatility is to stick to a long-term investing strategy, such as a buy-and-hold strategy. If you stick to long-term investments rather than derivatives or other short-term assets or tools, you can somewhat ignore the day-to-day ups and downs of stock prices, and in doing so you may be able to better weather market volatility.

Avoid Timing the Market

Timing the market, as it relates to trading and investing, means waiting for ideal market conditions, and then making a move to try and capitalize on the best market outcome. But nobody can predict the future, and this is a high-risk strategy.

When seeing stock market charts and business news headlines, it can be tempting to imagine you can strike it rich by timing your investments perfectly. In reality, figuring out when to buy or sell securities is extremely difficult. Both professional and at-home investors make serious mistakes when trying to time the market.

Consider Dollar-Cost Averaging

Dollar cost averaging is essentially a way to manage volatility as you continue to save and build wealth. It’s a basic investment strategy where you buy a fixed dollar amount of an investment on a regular cadence (e.g. weekly or monthly). The goal is not to invest when prices are high or low, but rather to keep your investment steady, and thereby avoid the temptation to time the market.

That’s because with dollar cost averaging (DCA) you invest the same dollar amount each time. When prices are lower, you buy more; when prices are higher, you buy less. Otherwise, you might be tempted to follow your emotions and buy less when prices drop, and more when prices are increasing (a common tendency among investors).

How Much Stock Volatility Is Normal?

The average stock market return in the U.S. is roughly 10% annualized over time, or about 6% or 7% taking inflation into account.

When looking at nearly 100 years of data, as of the end of July 26 2023, the yearly average stock market return was between 8% and 12% only eight times. In reality, stock market returns are typically much higher or much lower.

It’s also important to remember that past market performance is not indicative of future returns. But looking at history can help an investor gauge how much volatility and market fluctuation might be considered normal. Since the end of World War II, the S&P 500 has posted 14 drops of more than 20%, including the most recent in 2022 — a dip precipitated by the rapid rise in interest rates.

These prolonged downturns of 20% or more are considered bear markets. While bear markets have a bad name, they don’t always lead to recession, and on average bear markets are shorter than bull markets.

Investing in Stocks With SoFi

Stock volatility is the pace at which the price of a company’s shares move up or down during a certain period of time. Volatility is a complex topic, and it often sparks debate among investors, traders, and academics about what causes it.

While equities are considered an important part of any investment portfolio, they are also known for being volatile, and some degree of turbulence is something most stock investors have to live with.

Ready to invest in your goals? It’s easy to get started when you open an investment account with SoFi Invest. You can invest in stocks, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), mutual funds, alternative funds, and more. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).


Invest with as little as $5 with a SoFi Active Investing account.

FAQ

Is volatility the same as risk?

In a sense, yes. Volatility is an indicator of risk. So a stock that is highly volatile, with big price changes, is considered riskier than a stock that is less volatile and maintains a more stable price.

Who should buy stocks when volatility strikes?

Certain types of investors, e.g. day traders and options traders, may have strategies that enable them to profit from volatile securities (although there are no guarantees). In some cases, ordinary investors with a very high risk tolerance may want to invest in a volatile stock — but they have to be willing to face the possibility of steep losses.

What is the best stock volatility indicator?

Perhaps the most common or popular one is the VIX. Depending on which way the VIX is trending, it may throw off buy or sell signals to investors. The VIX can be helpful for assessing risk in order to capitalize on anticipated market movements.

What is good volatility for a stock?

Deciding whether the volatility of a certain stock is “good” is a matter of your personal investing style and goals. Some investors may seek out volatile equities if they believe they have a strategy that can capitalize on price fluctuations. Other investors with a long-term view may not mind volatility if they believe the outcome over time will be favorable — while others may opt for as little volatility in their portfolios as possible.

What causes volatility in a stock?

Just about anything can cause stock volatility. Some of the more common causes of volatility are earnings reports or other company news; geopolitical news and developments; or broader economic changes, such as interest rate hikes or inflation.


Photo credit: iStock/FluxFactory

SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Investment Risk: Diversification can help reduce some investment risk. It cannot guarantee profit, or fully protect in a down market.

Options involve risks, including substantial risk of loss and the possibility an investor may lose the entire amount invested in a short period of time. Before an investor begins trading options they should familiarize themselves with the Characteristics and Risks of Standardized Options . Tax considerations with options transactions are unique, investors should consult with their tax advisor to understand the impact to their taxes.
Third-Party Brand Mentions: No brands, products, or companies mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third-party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Disclaimer: The projections or other information regarding the likelihood of various investment outcomes are hypothetical in nature, do not reflect actual investment results, and are not guarantees of future results.

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Can You Contribute to Both a 401(k) and an IRA?

“Can I contribute to a 401(k) and IRA?” It’s a question many individuals ask themselves as they start planning for their future. The short answer is yes, it’s possible to have a 401(k) or other employer-sponsored plan at work and also make contributions to an individual retirement plan, either a traditional or a Roth IRA.

If you have the money to do so, contributing to both a 401(k) and an IRA could help you fast track your retirement goals while enjoying some tax savings. But your income and filing status may affect the amounts you are allowed to contribute, in addition to the tax benefits you might see from a dual contribution strategy.

Read on to learn more about the guidelines and restrictions for having these two types of accounts and to answer the question “Can I contribute to a 401(k) and IRA?”

Key Points

•   It is possible to contribute to both a 401(k) and an IRA for retirement savings.

•   401(k) plans are employer-sponsored and allow both employee and employer contributions.

•   IRAs are individual retirement accounts that anyone can set up for themselves.

•   Contribution limits and tax benefits vary for 401(k)s and IRAs based on income and filing status.

•   Having both types of accounts can provide flexibility and help optimize taxes and distribution strategies.

Introduction to Retirement Savings Accounts

Although both IRAs and 401(k)s are retirement savings accounts, there are some important differences to know. The main one is that a 401(k) is an employer-sponsored retirement plan that allows both the employee and employer to contribute to the account.

IRAs are Individual Retirement Accounts that anyone can set up for themselves. There are two main types of IRAs: traditional and Roth.

Here’s a closer look at key differences between 401(k) plans and IRAs.

Understanding the Basics of 401(k)s and IRAs

A 401(k) is an employer-sponsored retirement plan. Employees sign up for a 401(k) through work and their contributions are automatically deducted directly from their paychecks. The money contributed to a 401(k) is tax deferred, which means you are not taxed on it until you withdraw it in retirement. Some employers match employees’ contributions to a 401(k) up to a certain amount.

An IRA is a tax-advantaged savings account that you can use to put away money for retirement. Money in an IRA can potentially grow through investment. While there are different types of IRAs, two of the most common types are traditional IRAs and Roth IRAs. The main difference between the two is the way they are taxed.

With a Roth IRA, you make after-tax contributions, and those contributions are not tax deductible. However, the money can potentially grow tax-free, and typically, you won’t owe taxes on it when you withdraw it in retirement (or at age 59 ½ and older). Individuals need to fall within certain income limits to open a Roth IRA (more about that later).

With a traditional IRA, your contributions are made with pre-tax dollars. Your contributions may lower your taxable income in the year you contribute. The money in a traditional IRA is tax-deferred, and you pay income taxes on it when you withdraw it. Traditional IRAs tend to have fewer eligibility requirements than Roth IRAs.

The Importance of Investing in Your Future

Retirement might seem like a long way off, but it’s vital to keep in mind that saving for it now can help you to meet your lifestyle needs and goals in your post-working years.

As you start planning your retirement savings, it’s a good idea to determine the estimated age you can retire, as the timing can influence other choices — like how much you choose to save, and what investments you might pick.

There are plenty of resources available online, including SoFi’s retirement calculator to help you determine potential retirement timelines and scenarios.

💡 Quick Tip: Did you know that opening a brokerage account typically doesn’t come with any setup costs? Often, the only requirement to open a brokerage account — aside from providing personal details — is making an initial deposit.

Can I Contribute to a 401(k) and an IRA?

This is a good question to ask if you’re just getting started on your retirement planning journey. For example, if you’re already contributing to a plan at work, you may be wondering if you can also save money in an IRA.

Or maybe you opened an IRA in college but now you’re starting your career and have access to a 401(k) for the first time. You may be unsure whether it makes sense to keep making contributions to an IRA if you’ll soon be enrolled in your employer’s retirement plan.

Having a basic understanding of how 401(k)s and IRAs work can help you make the most of these accounts when mapping out your retirement strategy.

Boost your retirement contributions with a 1% match.

SoFi IRAs now get a 1% match on every dollar you deposit, up to the annual contribution limits. Open an account today and get started.


Only offers made via ACH are eligible for the match. ACATs, wires, and rollovers are not included.

Rules and Regulations for Multiple Retirement Accounts

There is no limit to the number of retirement accounts you can have. However, there are IRS rules about how much you can contribute to these accounts. And if you have multiples of the same type of retirement account, like two IRAs, you need to stay within the overall limit for both accounts combined. In other words, there is one single annual contribution limit for multiple IRAs.

In many cases, it may be beneficial to have more than one retirement account type. Brian Walsh, CFP® at SoFi says multiple accounts allow you have “added flexibility to optimize your taxes and your overall distribution strategy in 30, 40, or 50 years.”

Key Takeaways for Dual Contributions

When contributing to a 401(k) and an IRA you’ll want to remember these important points:

•   You can contribute up to the limit on your workplace 401(k) and up to the limit on your IRA annually.

•   If you have multiples of the same type of retirement account, such as two IRAs, you cannot exceed the single annual contribution limit across the accounts.

•   If you have a 401(k) at work, the tax deduction on your contributions for a traditional IRA may be limited, or you may not be eligible for a deduction at all.

2023 and 2024 Contribution Limits for 401(k) and IRA Plans

The IRS sets annual contribution limits for 401(k) and IRA plans and those limits change each year. These are the contribution limits for 2023 and 2024.

401(k) Contribution Limits and Considerations

As noted, a 401(k) plan may be funded by employer and employee contributions. Here are the annual 401(k) contribution limits for 2023:

•   $22,500 for employee contributions

•   $7,500 in catch-up contributions for employees age 50 or older

•   $66,000 limit for total employer and employee contributions ($73,500 including catch-up contributions for those 50 and older)

These are the annual 401(k) contribution limits for 2024:

•   $23,000 for employee contributions

•   $7,500 in catch-up contributions for employees age 50 or older

•   $69,000 limit for total employer and employee contributions ($76,500 including catch-up contributions for those 50 and older)

IRA Contribution Limits and Income Thresholds

IRAs are funded solely by individual contributions. Here are the annual contribution limits for traditional and Roth IRAs for 2023:

•   $6,500 for regular contributions

•   $1,000 catch-up contributions for those age 50 and older

And here are the annual contribution limits for traditional and Roth IRAs for 2024:

•   $7,000 for regular contributions

•   $1,000 catch-up contributions for those age 50 and older

These limits apply to total IRA contributions, as mentioned earlier. So if you have more than one IRA, the most you could add to those accounts combined in 2023 is $6,500 — or $7,500 if you’re 50 or older. And the most you could contribute to these IRA accounts combined in 2024 is $7,000 or $8,000 if you’re 50 or over.

The Intricacies of IRA Contributions

There are some rules about IRA contributions that it’s vital to be aware of. For instance, you can’t save more than you earn in taxable income in your IRA. That means if you earn $4,000 for a year, you can only contribute $4,000 in your IRA.

Plus, as discussed above, the most you can contribute, whether you have one IRA or multiple IRAs, is the annual contribution limit.

And finally, the type of IRA you have affects the portion of your contributions (if any) you can deduct from your taxes.

Traditional vs Roth IRA: What You Need to Know

The main difference between a traditional IRA and a Roth IRA is how and when you are taxed. There are also some eligibility requirements and deduction limits.

IRA Deduction Limits and Eligibility Requirements

Traditional IRAs offer the benefit of tax-deductible contributions. The money you deposit is pre-tax (meaning, you don’t pay taxes on those funds), and contributions grow tax-deferred. You pay tax when making qualified withdrawals in retirement.

However, if either you or your spouse is covered by a retirement plan at work and your income is higher than a certain level, the tax deduction of your annual contributions to a traditional IRA may be limited.

Specifically, if either you or your spouse has a workplace retirement plan, a full deduction of the amount you contribute to an IRA in 2023 is allowed if:

•   You file single or head of household and your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) is $73,000 or less

•   You’re married and file jointly, or a qualifying widow(er), with an MAGI of $116,000 or less

For 2024, you can take a full deduction of your yearly contributions to a traditional IRA if:

•   You file single or head of household and your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) is $77,000 or less

•   You’re married and file jointly, or a qualifying widow(er), with an MAGI of $123,000 or less

A partial deduction is allowed for incomes over these limits, though it does eventually phase out entirely.

Roth IRAs allow you to make contributions using after-tax dollars. This means you don’t get the benefit of deducting the amount you contribute from your current year’s taxes. The upside of Roth accounts, though, is that you can typically make qualified withdrawals in retirement tax-free.

But there’s a catch: Your ability to contribute to a Roth IRA is based on your income. So how much you earn could be a deciding factor in answering the question, can you have a Roth IRA and 401(k) at the same time.

You can make a full contribution to a Roth IRA if:

•   In 2023, you file single or head of household, or you’re legally separated, and have a modified adjusted gross income of less than $138,000. For 2024, your MAGI must be less than $146,000 to make the full contribution.

•   In 2023, you’re married and file jointly, or are a qualifying widow(er), and your MAGI is less than $218,000. For 2024, you need a MAGI less than $230,000 to be able to make a full contribution.

The amount you can contribute to a Roth IRA is reduced as your income increases until it phases out altogether.

💡 Quick Tip: The advantage of opening a Roth IRA and a tax-deferred account like a 401(k) or traditional IRA is that by the time you retire, you’ll have tax-free income from your Roth, and taxable income from the tax-deferred account. This can help with tax planning.

How Contributing to Both a 401(k) and an IRA Affects Your Taxes

Both 401(k) plans and IRAs can offer tax benefits. Here are the key tax benefits to know when contributing to these plans:

•   401(k) contributions are tax-deductible

•   Traditional IRA contributions can be tax-deductible for eligible savers

•   Roth IRA contributions are not tax deductible, but Roth plans allow you to make tax-free withdrawals in retirement

Understanding the Tax Implications

You might choose to contribute to a Roth IRA and a 401(k) if you anticipate being in a higher tax bracket when you retire. By paying taxes now, rather than when you’re in the higher tax bracket later, you could limit your tax liability.

However, if you expect to be in a lower tax bracket when you retire, you may want to opt for a traditional IRA so that you pay the taxes later.

Strategies for Minimizing Taxes on Withdrawals

Both 401(k) plans and IRAs are designed to be used for retirement, which is why the taxes you pay are deferred (and why these accounts are typically called tax-deferred accounts). As such, early withdrawals from 401(k) plans are discouraged and you may trigger taxes and a penalty when taking money from these plans prior to age 59 ½.

Here are the most important things to know about withdrawing money from 401(k) plans or traditional and Roth IRAs:

•   Withdrawals from 401(k) and traditional IRA accounts are subject to ordinary income tax at the time you withdraw them. If you withdraw funds before age 59 ½, you would owe taxes and a 10% penalty — although some exceptions apply (e.g. an emergency or hardship withdrawal).

•   Roth IRA contributions and earnings are treated somewhat differently. Withdrawals of original contributions (not earnings) to a Roth IRA can be made tax- and penalty-free at any time.

•   If you withdraw earnings from a Roth account prior to age 59 ½, and if you haven’t owned the account for at least five years, the money could be subject to taxes and a 10% penalty. This is called the five-year rule. Special exceptions may apply for a first-time home purchase, college expenses, and other situations.

In addition to taxes, a 10% early withdrawal penalty can apply to withdrawals made from 401(k) plans or IRAs before age 59 ½ unless an exception applies. But the IRS does allow for several exceptions. In terms of what constitutes an exception, the IRS waives the penalty in certain scenarios, including total and permanent disability of the plan participant or owner, payment for qualified higher education expenses, and withdrawals of up to $10,000 toward the purchase of a first home.

You might also avoid the penalty with 401(k) plans if you meet the rule of 55. This rule allows you to withdraw money from a 401(k) penalty-free if you leave your job in the year you turn 55, although you would still owe ordinary income taxes on that money. This scenario also has some restrictions, so you may want to discuss it with your plan administrator or a financial advisor.

Finally, once you reach a certain age, you are required to withdraw minimum amounts from 401(k) plans and traditional IRAs or else you could be charged a significant tax penalty. These are known as required minimum distributions or RMDs.

The IRS generally requires you to begin taking RMDs from these plans at age 73 (as long as you reached age 72 after December 31, 2022). The amount you’re required to withdraw is based on your account balance and life expectancy, and many retirement plan providers offer help calculating the exact amount of your required distributions.

This is critical, because if you don’t take RMDs on time you may trigger a 50% tax penalty on the amount you were required to withdraw.

RMDs are not required for Roth IRAs.

Choosing Between a 401(k) and an IRA

If you are deciding between a 401(k) and an IRA, there are a number of factors you’ll want to weigh carefully before making a decision.

Factors to Consider When Making Your Choice

Overall, IRAs tend to offer more investment options, and 401(k)s allow higher annual contributions. If your employer matches 401(k) contributions up to a certain amount, that’s another important consideration. Additionally, you’ll want to think about the tax advantages and implications of each type of account.

Comparing Benefits and Drawbacks of Each Plan

Both 401(k)s and IRAs have advantages and disadvantages. It’s important to consider all variables in determining which account is best for your situation.

401(k)

IRA

Pros

•   Larger contribution limits than IRAs.

•   Employers may match employee contributions up to a certain amount.

•   Wide array of investment options.

•   A traditional IRA may allow tax deductions for contributions for those who meet the modified adjusted income requirements.

Cons

•   Limited investment options.

•   Potentially high fees.

•   Contribution amount is much smaller than it is for a 401(k).

•   Roth IRAs have income requirements for eligibility.

Neither plan is necessarily better than the other. They each offer different features and possible benefits. If your employer doesn’t offer a 401(k) plan, you may want to set up a traditional or Roth IRA depending on your personal financial situation. And if you’re already contributing to a 401(k), you may still want to think about opening an IRA.

The Combined Power of a 401(k) and IRA

Instead of investing in only an IRA or your company’s retirement plan, consider how you can blend the two into a powerful investment strategy. One reason this makes sense is that you can invest more for your retirement, with the additional savings and potential growth providing even more resources to fund your retirement dreams.

How to Strategically Invest in Both Accounts

Since employers often match 401(k) contributions up to a certain percentage (for instance, your company might match the first 3% of your contributions), this boosts your overall savings. The employer match is essentially free money that you could get simply by making the minimum contribution to your plan.

Now imagine adding an IRA to the picture. Remember, with an IRA you have flexibility when investing. With a 401(k), you have limited options when it comes to investment funds. With an IRA, you’re able to decide what you’d like to invest in, whether it be stocks, bonds, mutual funds, exchanged-traded funds (ETFs), or other options.

To strategically invest in both accounts, consider contributing to 401(k) and IRA plans up to the annual limits, if you can realistically afford to. Make sure this is feasible given your budget, spending, and other financial goals you may have such as paying down debt or saving for your child’s education. And do some research into how this approach may affect your retirement tax deductions.

Not everyone is able to max out both retirement fund options, but even if you can’t, you can still create a powerful one-two punch by making strategic choices. First, think about your company-matching benefit for your 401(k). This is a key benefit and it makes sense to take as much advantage as you can.

Let’s say that your company will match a certain percentage of the first 6% of your gross earnings. Calculate what 6% is and consider contributing that much to your 401(k) and opening an IRA with other money you can invest this year.

And, if you end up having even more money to invest? Consider going back to your 401(k). There still may be value in contributing to your 401(k) beyond the amount that can be matched — for the simple reason that company-sponsored plans allow you to save more than an IRA does.

Now, let’s say you have a 401(k) plan but your employer doesn’t offer a matching benefit. Then, consider contributing to an IRA first. You may benefit from having a wider array of investment choices. Once you’ve maxed out what you can contribute to your IRA, then contribute to your 401(k).

These are all just options and examples, of course. What you ultimately decide to do depends on your financial and personal situation.

Long-term Growth Potential

By investing in both a 401(k) and IRA, you are taking advantage of employer-matched contributions and diversifying your retirement portfolio which can help manage risk and may potentially improve the overall performance of your investments in aggregate.

In addition, while a 401(k) offered by your employer may have limited investment options to choose from, with an IRA, you have more access to different investment options. That could, potentially, help grow your money for retirement, depending on what you invest in and the rate of return of those investments.

Plus, by contributing to both kinds of retirement accounts, you are likely putting more money overall into saving for retirement.

Step-by-Step Guide to Contributing to Both 401(k) and IRA

If you’ve decided to open and contribute to both a 401(k) and an IRA, here’s how to get started.

Eligibility Verification and Contribution Processes

To determine if you’re eligible to contribute to a 401(k), find out if your employer offers such a plan. Your HR or benefits department should be able to help you with this.

If a 401(k) is available, fill out the paperwork to enroll in the plan. Decide how much you want to contribute. This will typically either be a set dollar amount or a percentage of your paycheck that will usually be automatically deducted. Next, select the type of investment options you’d like from those that are available. You could diversify your investments across a range of asset classes, such as index funds, stocks, and bonds, to help reduce your risk exposure.

Individuals with earned income can open an IRA — even if they also have a 401(k). First, decide what type of IRA you’d like to open. A traditional IRA generally has fewer eligibility requirements. A Roth IRA has income limits on contributions. So, in this case, you’ll need to find out if you are income-eligible for a Roth.

You can typically open an IRA through a bank, an online lender, or a brokerage. Once you’ve decided where to open the account and the type of IRA you’d like, you can begin the process of opening the account. You’ll need to supply personal information such as your name and address, date of birth, Social Security number, and employment information. You’ll also need to provide your banking information to transfer funds into the IRA.

Next decide how much to invest in the IRA, based on the annual maximum contribution amount allowed, as discussed above, and choose your investment options. Remember, diversifying your investments across different asset classes and investment sectors can help manage risk.

Examples of Diversified Retirement Portfolios

To build a diversified portfolio, one guideline is the 60-40 rule of investing. That means investing 60% of your portfolio in stocks and 40% in fixed income and cash.

However, that formula varies depending on your age. The closer you get to retirement, the more conservative with your investments you may want to be to help minimize your risk.

No matter what your age, make sure your investments are in line with your financial goals and tolerance for risk.

The Takeaway

Not only is it possible to have a 401(k) and also a traditional or Roth IRA, it might offer you significant benefits to have both, depending on your circumstances. The chief upside, of course, is that having two accounts gives you the option to save even more for retirement.

The main downside of deciding whether to fund a 401(k) and a traditional or Roth IRA is that it can be a complicated question: You have to consider your ability to save, your risk tolerance, and the tax implications of each type of account, as well as your long-term goals. Then, if you decide to move ahead with both types of accounts, you can work on opening them up and contributing to them.

Ready to invest in your goals? It’s easy to get started when you open an investment account with SoFi Invest. You can invest in stocks, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), mutual funds, alternative funds, and more. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

Invest with as little as $5 with a SoFi Active Investing account.

FAQ

Can you max out both a 401(k) and an IRA?

Yes, you can max out both a 401(k) and an IRA up to the annual amounts allowed by the IRS. For 2023 that’s $6,500 for an IRA ($7,500 if you’re 50 or older), and $22,500 ($30,000 if you’re 50 or older) for a 401(k). For 2024, it’s $7,000 for an IRA ($8,000 if you’re 50 or older), and $23,000 for a 401(k) or ($30,500 if you’re 50 or older).

How do employer contributions affect your IRA contributions?

Employer contributions to a 401(k) don’t affect your IRA contributions. You can still contribute the maximum allowable amount annually to your IRA even if your employer contributes to your 401(k). However, having a retirement plan like a 401(k) at work does affect the portion of your IRA contributions that may be deductible from your taxable income. In this case, the deductions are limited, and potentially not allowed, depending on the size of your salary.


SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Investment Risk: Diversification can help reduce some investment risk. It cannot guarantee profit, or fully protect in a down market.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.

Third-Party Brand Mentions: No brands, products, or companies mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third-party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.

Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs): Investors should carefully consider the information contained in the prospectus, which contains the Fund’s investment objectives, risks, charges, expenses, and other relevant information. You may obtain a prospectus from the Fund company’s website or by email customer service at [email protected]. Please read the prospectus carefully prior to investing.
Shares of ETFs must be bought and sold at market price, which can vary significantly from the Fund’s net asset value (NAV). Investment returns are subject to market volatility and shares may be worth more or less their original value when redeemed. The diversification of an ETF will not protect against loss. An ETF may not achieve its stated investment objective. Rebalancing and other activities within the fund may be subject to tax consequences.


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What Is the Rule of 55? How It Works for Early Retirement

What Is the Rule of 55? How It Works for Early Retirement

The rule of 55 is a provision in the Internal Revenue Code that allows workers to withdraw money from their employer-sponsored retirement plan without a penalty once they reach age 55. Distributions are still taxable as income but there’s no additional 10% early withdrawal penalty.

The IRS rule of 55 applies to 401(k) and 403(b) plans. If you have either of these types of retirement accounts through your employer, it’s important to understand how this rule works when taking retirement plan distributions.

Key Points

•   The rule of 55 allows penalty-free withdrawals from employer-sponsored retirement plans for individuals aged 55 or older.

•   This rule applies to 401(k) and 403(b) plans, allowing early access to retirement funds without the usual 10% penalty.

•   To qualify, individuals must have separated from their employer at age 55 or older and leave the funds in the employer’s plan.

•   The rule of 55 does not apply to IRAs, and certain conditions and restrictions may vary depending on the specific retirement plan.

•   While the rule of 55 can be beneficial for early retirees, it’s important to consider tax implications and other factors before utilizing it.

What Is the Rule of 55?

The rule of 55 is an exception to standard IRS withdrawal rules for qualified workplace plans, including 401(k) and 403(b) plans. Normally, you can’t withdraw money from these plans before age 59 ½ without paying a 10% early withdrawal penalty. This penalty is only waived for certain allowed exceptions, of which the rule of 55 is one.

Specifically, the rule of 55 applies to “distributions made to you after you separated from service with your employer after attainment of age 55,” per the IRS. It doesn’t matter whether you quit, get laid off or retired — you can still withdraw money from your retirement plan penalty-free. If you’re a qualified public safety employee, this exception kicks in at age 50 instead of 55.

💡 Quick Tip: Before opening an investment account, know your investment objectives, time horizon, and risk tolerance. These fundamentals will help keep your strategy on track and with the aim of meeting your goals.

How Does the Rule of 55 Work?

The rule of 55 for 401(k) and 403(b) plans allows workers to access money in their retirement plans without a 10% early withdrawal penalty. This rule applies to current workplace retirement plans only.

You can’t use the rule of 55 to take money from a 401(k) or 401(b) you had with a previous employer penalty-free unless you first roll over those account balances into your current plan before separating from service.

This rule doesn’t apply to individual retirement accounts (IRA) either. So, you can’t use the rule of 55 to tap into an IRA before age 59 ½ without a tax penalty. There are, however, some exclusions that might allow you to do so. For example, you could take money penalty-free from an IRA if you’re using it for the purchase of a first home.

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Rule of 55 Requirements

To qualify for a rule of 55 401(k) or 403(b) withdrawal, you’ll need to:

•   Be age 55 or older

•   Separate from your employer at age 55 or older

•   Leave the money in your employer’s plan (rule of 55 benefits are lost if you roll funds over to an IRA)

You also need to have a 401(k) or 403(b) plan that allows for rule of 55 withdrawals. If your plan doesn’t permit early withdrawals before age 59 ½ , then you won’t be able to take advantage of this rule.

Also keep in mind that IRS rules require a 20% tax withholding on early withdrawals from a 401(k) or similar plan. This applies even if you plan to roll the money over later to another qualified plan or IRA. So you’ll need to consider how that withholding will affect what you receive from the plan and how much you may still owe in taxes on your 401(k) later when reporting the distribution on your return.

Example of the Rule of 55

Here’s how the rule of 55 works. Say you lose your job or decide to retire early at age 55, and you need money to help pay your bills and cover lifestyle expenses. Under the rule of 55, you can take distributions from the 401(k) or 403(b) plan you were contributing to up until the time you left your job. You will not be charged the typical 10% early withdrawal penalty in this instance.

Also worth noting: If you decide to go back to work a year or two later at age 56 or 57, say, you can still continue to take distributions from that same 401(k) or 403(b) plan, as long as you have not rolled it over into another employer-sponsored plan or IRA.

Should You Use the Rule of 55?

The IRS rule of 55 is designed to benefit people who may need or want to withdraw money from their retirement plan early for a variety of reasons. For example, you might consider using this rule if you:

•   Decide to retire early and need your 401(k) to close the income gap until you’re eligible for Social Security benefits

•   Are taking time away from work to act as a caregiver for a spouse or family member and need money from your retirement plan to cover basic living expenses

•   Want to take some of the money in your 401(k) early to help minimize required minimum distributions (RMDs) later

In those scenarios, it could make sense to apply the rule of 55 in order to access your retirement savings penalty-free. On the other hand, there are some situations where you may be better off letting the money in your employer’s plan continue to grow.

For instance, if your employer’s plan requires you to take a lump sum payment, this could push you into a substantially higher tax bracket. Having to pay taxes on all of the money at once could diminish your account balance more so than spreading out distributions — and the associated tax liability — over a longer period of time.

You may also reconsider taking money from your 401(k) early if you still plan to work in some capacity. If you have income from a new full-time job or part-time job, for instance, you may not need to withdraw funds from your 401(k) at all. But if you change your mind later and decide to return to work, you can continue to take withdrawals from the same retirement plan penalty-free.

Other Ways to Withdraw From a 401(k) Penalty-Free

Aside from the rule of 55, there are other exceptions that could allow you to take money from your 401(k) penalty-free. The IRS allows you to do so if you:

•   Reach age 59 ½

•   Pass away (for distributions made to your plan beneficiary)

•   Become totally and permanently disabled

•   Need the money to pay for unreimbursed medical expenses exceeding 10% of your adjusted gross income (AGI)

•   Need the money to pay health insurance premiums while unemployed

•   Are a qualified reservist called to active duty

You can also avoid the 10% early withdrawal penalty by taking a series of substantially equal periodic payments. This IRS rule allows you to sidestep the penalty if you agree to take a series of equal payments based on your life expectancy. You must separate from service with the employer that maintains your 401(k) in order to be eligible under this rule. Additionally, you must commit to taking the payment amount that’s required by the IRS for a minimum of five years or until you reach age 59 ½, whichever occurs first.

A 401(k) loan might be another option for withdrawing money from your retirement account without a tax penalty. You might consider this if you’re not planning to retire but need to take money from your retirement plan.

With a 401(k) loan, you’ll have to pay the money back with interest. Your employer may stop you from making new contributions to the plan until the loan is repaid, generally over a five-year term. If you leave your job where you have your 401(k) before the loan is repaid, any remaining amount becomes payable in full. If you can’t pay the loan off, the whole amount is treated as a taxable distribution and the 10% early withdrawal penalty also may apply if you’re under age 59 ½.

The Takeaway

Early retirement may be one of your financial goals, and achieving it requires some planning. Maxing out your 401(k) or 403(b) can help you save the money you’ll need to retire early, and you may be able to access the funds early with the rule of 55.

You may also consider investing in an IRA or a taxable brokerage account to save for retirement. A brokerage account doesn’t have age restrictions, so there are no penalties for early withdrawals before age 59 ½. You’ll have to pay capital gains tax on any profits realized from selling investments, but you can allow the balances in your 401(k) or IRA to continue to grow on a tax-advantaged basis.

Ready to invest for your retirement? It’s easy to get started when you open a traditional or Roth IRA with SoFi. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

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FAQ

Can I use the rule of 55 if I get another job?

Yes, you can use the rule of 55 to keep withdrawing from your 401(k) if you get another job. As long as it’s the same 401(k) you were contributing to when you left your job and you haven’t rolled it over into an IRA or another plan, you can still continue to take distributions from it whether you get a full-time or part-time job.

How do I know if I qualify for Rule of 55?

First, find out if your employer allows for the rule 55 withdrawals. Check with your HR or benefits department. If they do, and you are 55 or older (or age 50 or older if you are a public safety worker), you should qualify for the rule of 55 and be able to take distributions from your most recent employer’s plan. You cannot take penalty-free distributions from 401(k) plans with previous employers.

How do I claim the rule of 55?

To start taking rule of 55 withdrawals, typically all you need to do is reach out to your plan’s administrator and prove that you qualify — meaning that you are age 55 or older and that you’re leaving your job.

What is the rule of 55 lump sum?

Some 401(k) plans may require you to take a lump sum payment if you are using the rule of 55. That could create a big tax liability since you will need to pay income tax on the money you withdraw. In this case you might want to explore other alternatives to the rule of 55. It may also be helpful to speak with a tax professional.


Photo credit: iStock/bagi1998

SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.

Third-Party Brand Mentions: No brands, products, or companies mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third-party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.

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REITs vs. REIT ETFs: What’s the Difference?

Both real estate investment trusts (REITs) and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) that invest in REITs offer some benefits of real estate investing, without having to own any properties directly. The main differences between a real estate ETF vs. REIT lie in how they’re structured, dividend payouts, taxes, and the fees investors might pay to own them.

Also, REITs are considered alternative investments, which means they tend not to move in sync with traditional investments like stocks and bonds.

Key Points

•   REITs and REIT ETFs offer benefits of real estate investing without direct property ownership.

•   Differences between REITs and REIT ETFs include structure, dividend payouts, taxes, and fees.

•   REITs are considered alternative investments and may not move in sync with traditional investments.

•   REITs generate income through rents, while REIT ETFs own a collection of REIT investments.

•   Investors can buy and sell shares of REIT ETFs on stock exchanges, while REITs can be publicly traded, non-traded, or private.

Overview of REITs

A real estate investment trust is a legal entity that owns and operates income-producing properties. REITs can hold a single property type or multiple property types, including:

•   Hotels and resorts

•   Self-storage facilities

•   Warehouses

•   Retail space, including shopping centers

•   Apartment buildings or multi-family homes

•   On-campus housing

•   Assisted living facilities

REITs that own and manage properties typically generate most, if not all, of their income through rents. Some REITs may also invest in mortgages and mortgage-backed securities. REITs that invest in mortgages can collect interest on those loans.

There are two conditions to qualify for a REIT. A company must:

•   Derive the bulk of its income and assets from real estate-related activities

•   Pay out at least 90% of dividends to shareholders

Companies that meet these conditions can deduct all of the dividends paid to shareholders from corporate taxable income.

💡 Quick Tip: Alternative investments provide exposure to sectors outside traditional asset classes like stocks, bonds, and cash. Some of the most common types of alt investments include commodities, real estate, foreign currency, private credit, private equity, collectibles, and hedge funds.

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What Is a REIT ETF?

An exchange-traded fund or ETF is a pooled investment vehicle that shares some of the features of a mutual fund but trades on an exchange like a stock. A REIT ETF is an exchange-traded fund that owns a basket or collection of REIT investments.

While REITs own properties, REIT ETFs do not. REIT ETFs have a fund manager who oversees the selection of securities held in the fund. The fund manager also decides when to sell off fund assets, if necessary.

A REIT ETF may be actively or passively managed. Actively managed ETFs often pursue investment strategies that are designed to beat the market. Passively managed ETFs, on the other hand, aim to mimic the performance of an underlying market benchmark or index.

Recommended: What Is a Dividend?

How REIT ETFs Work

REIT ETFs work by allowing investors to gain exposure to a variety of real estate assets in a single investment vehicle. For example, a REIT may hold:

•   Stocks issued by REITs

•   Other real estate stocks

•   Real estate derivatives, such as options, futures, or swaps

Investors can buy shares of a REIT ETF on a stock exchange and sell them the same way. Like other ETFs, REIT ETFs charge an expense ratio that reflects the cost of owning the fund annually. Expense ratios for a REIT ETF, as well as performance, can vary from one fund to the next.

REIT ETFs pay dividends to investors, which may be qualified or non-qualified. The fund may give investors the option to reinvest dividends vs. collecting them as passive income. Reinvesting dividends can allow you to purchase additional shares of a fund, without having to put up any money out of pocket.

A REIT ETF might track the performance of the MSCI US Investable Market Real Estate 25/50 Index, which offers investors access to multiple REIT property sectors, including:

•   Data centers

•   Health care

•   Hotels and resorts

•   Office space

•   Industrial

•   Real estate

•   Retail

•   Telecom

💡 Quick Tip: Before opening an investment account, know your investment objectives, time horizon, and risk tolerance. These fundamentals will help keep your strategy on track and with the aim of meeting your goals.

What’s the Difference between REITs and REIT ETFs?

REITs and REIT ETFs both offer opportunities to invest in real estate, without requiring investors to be hands-on in managing property. There are, however, some key differences to know when considering whether to invest in a REIT vs. REIT ETF.

Structure

REITs are most often structured as corporations, though they can also be established as partnerships or limited liability companies (LLCs). The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) requires REITs to have a board of directors or trustees who oversee the company’s management. As mentioned, REITs must pay out 90% of dividends to shareholders to deduct those payments from their corporate taxable income.

A REIT may be categorized in one of three ways, depending on what it invests in.

•   Equity REITs own properties that generate rental income.

•   Mortgage REITs focus on mortgages and mortgage-backed securities.

•   Hybrid REITs hold both properties and mortgage investments.

REIT ETFs are structured similarly to mutual funds, in that they hold multiple securities and allow investors to pool funds together to invest in them. The fund manager decides which investments to include and how many securities to invest in overall.

Both REITs and REIT ETFs are structured to pay out dividends to shareholders. And both can generate those dividends through rental income, mortgage interest, or a combination of the two. The difference is that structurally, a REIT ETF is a step removed since it doesn’t own property directly.

Investment Style

REITs and REIT ETFs can take different approaches concerning their investment style. When comparing a REIT vs. REIT ETF, it’s helpful to consider the underlying investments, fund objectives, and management style.

An actively managed REIT, for example, may generate a very different return profile than a passively managed REIT ETF. Active management can potentially result in better returns if the REIT or REIT ETF can beat the market. However, they can also present more risk to investors.

Passive management, on the other hand, typically entails less risk to investors as the goal is to match the performance of an index or market benchmark rather than exceed it. Fees may be lower as well if there are fewer costs incurred to buy and sell securities within the fund.

How They’re Traded

Individual REITs can be publicly traded, public but non-traded, or private. Publicly traded REITs are bought and sold on stock market exchanges and are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Public non-traded REITs are also subject to SEC regulation but they don’t trade on exchanges.

Private REITs, meanwhile, are not required to register with the SEC, nor are they traded on exchanges. These types of REITs are most often traded by institutional or accredited investors and may require higher buy-ins.

REIT ETFs trade on an exchange like a stock. You can buy shares of a REIT or REIT ETF through your brokerage account. If you decide you’re no longer interested in owning those shares you can sell them on an exchange. Unlike traditional mutual funds, share prices for REIT ETFs can fluctuate continuously throughout the day.

The Takeaway

Real estate can be an addition to a portfolio for investors who are interested in alternative investments. Whether it makes sense to choose a real estate ETF vs. REIT, or vice versa, can depend on your short and long-term financial goals, as well as your preferred investment style.

Ready to expand your portfolio's growth potential? Alternative investments, traditionally available to high-net-worth individuals, are accessible to everyday investors on SoFi's easy-to-use platform. Investments in commodities, real estate, venture capital, and more are now within reach. Alternative investments can be high risk, so it's important to consider your portfolio goals and risk tolerance to determine if they're right for you.


Invest in alts to take your portfolio beyond stocks and bonds.

FAQ

Do REIT ETFs pay dividends?

REIT ETFs pay dividends to investors. When considering a REIT ETF for dividends, it’s important to assess whether they’re qualified or non-qualified, as that can have implications for the tax treatment of that income.

What are the risks of investing in REITs?

REITs are not risk-free investments, and their performance can be affected by a variety of factors, including interest rates, shifts in property values, and limited liquidity. In some cases, the dividend payout from a REIT can provide steady returns, but this is not always the case, as real estate conditions can fluctuate.

Do REITs have fees?

REITs can charge a variety of fees, which may include upfront commissions, sales loads, and annual management fees. REIT ETFs, meanwhile, charge expense ratios and you may pay a commission to buy or sell them, depending on which brokerage you choose. Evaluating the fees for a REIT or REIT ETF can help you better understand how much of your returns you’ll get to keep in exchange for owning the investment.


Photo credit: iStock/Maks_Lab

SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.


An investor should consider the investment objectives, risks, charges, and expenses of the Fund carefully before investing. This and other important information are contained in the Fund’s prospectus. For a current prospectus, please click the Prospectus link on the Fund’s respective page. The prospectus should be read carefully prior to investing.
Alternative investments, including funds that invest in alternative investments, are risky and may not be suitable for all investors. Alternative investments often employ leveraging and other speculative practices that increase an investor's risk of loss to include complete loss of investment, often charge high fees, and can be highly illiquid and volatile. Alternative investments may lack diversification, involve complex tax structures and have delays in reporting important tax information. Registered and unregistered alternative investments are not subject to the same regulatory requirements as mutual funds.
Please note that Interval Funds are illiquid instruments, hence the ability to trade on your timeline may be restricted. Investors should review the fee schedule for Interval Funds via the prospectus.

Investment Risk: Diversification can help reduce some investment risk. It cannot guarantee profit, or fully protect in a down market.

Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs): Investors should carefully consider the information contained in the prospectus, which contains the Fund’s investment objectives, risks, charges, expenses, and other relevant information. You may obtain a prospectus from the Fund company’s website or by email customer service at [email protected]. Please read the prospectus carefully prior to investing.
Shares of ETFs must be bought and sold at market price, which can vary significantly from the Fund’s net asset value (NAV). Investment returns are subject to market volatility and shares may be worth more or less their original value when redeemed. The diversification of an ETF will not protect against loss. An ETF may not achieve its stated investment objective. Rebalancing and other activities within the fund may be subject to tax consequences.


Fund Fees
If you invest in Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) through SoFi Invest (either by buying them yourself or via investing in SoFi Invest’s automated investments, formerly SoFi Wealth), these funds will have their own management fees. These fees are not paid directly by you, but rather by the fund itself. these fees do reduce the fund’s returns. Check out each fund’s prospectus for details. SoFi Invest does not receive sales commissions, 12b-1 fees, or other fees from ETFs for investing such funds on behalf of advisory clients, though if SoFi Invest creates its own funds, it could earn management fees there.
SoFi Invest may waive all, or part of any of these fees, permanently or for a period of time, at its sole discretion for any reason. Fees are subject to change at any time. The current fee schedule will always be available in your Account Documents section of SoFi Invest.


Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.

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