What Is a Credit Card Issuer? Everything You Need to Know

By Jacqueline DeMarco · April 12, 2022 · 3 minute read

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What Is a Credit Card Issuer? Everything You Need to Know

Credit cards are handy financial tools, and we have credit card issuers to thank for them. A credit card issuer is a type of financial institution that creates credit cards, provides them to consumers, and manages credit card accounts.

To better understand what a credit card issuer is and how they operate, keep reading.

What Is a Credit Card Issuer?

Credit card issuers are financial institutions responsible for making credit cards, managing the application and approval process for credit cards, and keeping credit card accounts running smoothly. If you needed to check your credit card balance, pay your bill, or request a replacement credit card, you’d turn to your credit card issuer.

How Credit Card Issuers Work

The financial institutions that offer credit cards can be lending institutions, banks, credit unions, or fintech companies. The cardholder borrows money from the credit card issuer each time they make a purchase, and when they pay their credit card bill, they’re paying the credit card issuer back. This makes credit card issuers integral to what a credit card is.

A credit card issuer is the one to determine an applicant’s credit card interest rate and limit, the type of cardholder benefits offered, and the fee structure for the credit card. Generally, credit card issuers aren’t the ones to process merchant transactions, but they do decide whether to approve or decline a charge.

When questions about their credit card arise, account holders can call the number on the back of their credit card to connect with their credit card issuer’s customer support line.

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Why Are Credit Card Issuers Important?

Understanding why credit card issuers are so important can help consumers to better manage their relationship with their credit card issuer and choose the right credit card for their needs once they’re old enough to get a credit card.

The issuer is responsible for determining a credit card’s terms and features. All credit card issuers have different policies, customer support approaches, and types of rewards offerings. Before choosing a credit card, it’s helpful to carefully research not just how a credit card works, but how the credit card issuer runs its operations.

Recommended: How Do Credit Cards Work?

Common Credit Card Issuer Fees

What the fees look like for a specific credit card will vary by credit card issuer, but the following credit card issuer fees are fairly common to come across.

Annual Fees

An annual fee is a charge that’s paid once a year for having the credit card. These fees can start at $35 and go as high as $500 per year. Not all cards charge this fee, but those that do tend to come with more valuable perks and rewards.

Before signing up for a credit card with an annual fee, it’s important to crunch the numbers to see if the rewards that come with using the credit card (like cash back or travel points) will outweigh the cost of the fee. Even if you get a good APR for a credit card, a high annual fee could make the offer less sweet.

Late Payment Fees

Late payment fees apply when someone is past due on paying their bill. Usually, these fees go up each time a payment is missed. The late fee won’t ever cost more than the minimum payment due on the payment the cardholder missed, but these fees can still add up.

Balance Transfer Fees

When someone transfers their credit card balance from one card to another (usually to a balance transfer card with a lower interest rate), they can potentially owe a balance transfer fee. This fee can be either a percentage of the transferred amount or a fixed fee.

While consolidating debt through a balance transfer can make it easier to pay off credit card debt, make sure to take into consideration any fees involved.

Foreign Transaction Fees

Making purchases when traveling abroad can lead to paying a foreign transaction fee, which is usually around 3% of the purchase.

However, there are plenty of credit cards — especially travel rewards credit cards — that don’t charge foreign transaction fees. If someone travels internationally often, they could save a lot by choosing a credit card with no foreign transaction fees, which is worth considering when applying for a credit card.

Credit Card Issuer vs Credit Card Payment Networks

It’s easy to confuse credit card issuers and credit card payment networks. While a credit card issuer creates and manages credit cards, a credit card payment network is the one that processes transactions between credit card companies and merchants.

Let’s look at the key differences between credit card issuers and credit card payment networks:

Credit Card Issuer Credit Card Payment Network

•   Creates and manages credit cards

•   Accepts or declines credit card applicants

•   Determines fees, credit card APR, credit limits, and rewards

•   Approves and declines credit card transactions

•   Processes transactions between credit card companies and merchants

•   Creates the digital infrastructure that facilitates credit card transactions

•   Charges an interchange fee

•   Determines which credit cards can be used with which merchants

Differences Between Credit Card Issuers and Co-branded Partners

A co-branded partner is a merchant that works with a credit card issuer to create a co-branded credit card with their name on it. This is a common arrangement with store, airline, and hotel credit cards.

Here’s a breakdown of how credit card issuers and co-branded partners differ:

Credit Card Issuer Co-Branded Partner

•   Responsible for creating and managing credit cards

•   Decides whether to accept or decline credit card applicants

•   Determines card specifics, like fees, interest rates, and rewards

•   Approves and declines credit card transactions

•   Works with a a credit card issuer to create a co-branded card

•   Uses co-branded card created by issuer to increase sales and attract new customers

•   Can use co-branded card to deliver value to loyal customers

Finding the Credit Card Issuer Number

If someone looks closely at their credit card, they’ll be able to learn a lot about their credit card issuer, including what their credit card issuer number is and how to contact their issuer.

Credit Card Issuer Phone Number

It’s always possible to learn how to contact a credit card issuer by going to their website, but cardholders also can find their card issuer’s phone number on the back of their credit card or on their monthly statements.

Credit Card Issuer Identification Number

To find a credit card issuer number, all a cardholder has to do is look at the string of numbers on their credit card. The first six to eight digits on the card represent the Bank Identification Number (BIN), or the Issuer Identification Number (IIN). This number is what identifies the credit card issuer. The following digits on the card are what identify the cardholder.

Examples of Some Major Credit Card Issuers

There are many different credit card issuers, but these are some of the biggest ones in the U.S.:

•   American Express

•   Bank of America

•   Barclays

•   Capital One

•   Chase

•   Citi

•   Discover

•   Synchrony Bank

•   U.S. Bank

•   Wells Fargo

Considering the SoFi Credit Card?

When you’re choosing a credit card, looking at the credit card issuer matters. This is the financial institution that creates and manages credit cards, determines a card’s fees, interest rate, and rewards offerings, and also approves (or denies) credit card applicants.

Beyond the credit card issuer, you’ll also want to take into account what you want out of a credit card. If you’re looking for a new credit card that offers rewards, then you may want to look into the SoFi Credit Card. Cardholders can earn 2% unlimited cash back when you redeem it to save1, invest, or pay down an eligible SoFi loan. Plus, it charges foreign transaction fees.


How do I know my credit card issuer?

If someone is unsure of who their credit card issuer is, they can look at the credit card number on their card. The first six to eight digits on a credit card — called either the Bank Identification Number (BIN) or the Issuer Identification Number (IIN) — identify the card issuer.

What is the difference between a credit card issuer and a credit card network?

Credit card networks, unlike credit card issuers, are the party that processes the credit card transaction directly with merchants. Credit card networks have digital infrastructure that allow them to facilitate transactions between merchants and card issuers in exchange for an interchange fee.

What do credit card issuers do?

Credit card issuers create, distribute, and manage credit cards. They decide what the interest rates and fees of a credit card are, who is approved for one and how much they can spend, and how the card’s rewards structure works.

You will need to maintain a qualifying Direct Deposit every month with SoFi Checking and Savings in order to continue to receive this promotional cash back rate. Qualifying Direct Deposits are defined as deposits from enrolled member’s employer, payroll, or benefits provider via ACH deposit. Deposits that are not from an employer (such as check deposits; P2P transfers such as from PayPal or Venmo, etc.; merchant transactions such as from PayPal, Stripe, Square, etc.; and bank ACH transfers not from employers) do not qualify for this promotion. A maximum of 36,000 rewards points can be earned from this limited-time offer. After the promotional period ends or once you have earned the maximum points offered by this promotion, your cash back earning rate will revert back to 2%. 36,000 rewards points are worth $360 when redeemed into SoFi Checking and Savings, SoFi Money, SoFi Invest, Crypto, SoFi Personal Loan, SoFi Private Student Loan or Student Loan Refinance and are worth $180 when redeemed as a SoFi Credit Card statement credit.

Promotion Period: 4/18/2022-6/30/2022

Eligible Participants: All new members who apply and get approved for the SoFi Credit Card, open a SoFi Checking and Savings account, and set up Direct Deposit transactions ("Direct Deposit") into their SoFi Checking and Savings account during the promotion period are eligible. All existing SoFi Credit Card members who set up Direct Deposit into a SoFi Checking & Savings account during the promotion period are eligible. All existing SoFi members who have already enrolled in Direct Deposit into a SoFi Checking & Savings account prior to the promotion period, and who apply and get approved for a SoFi Credit Card during the promotion period are eligible. Existing SoFi members who already have the SoFi Credit Card and previously set up Direct Deposit through SoFi Money or SoFi Checking & Savings are not eligible for this promotion.

New SoFi Checking and Savings customers and existing Checking and Savings customers without direct deposit are eligible to earn a cash bonus when they set up direct deposits of at least $1,000 over a consecutive 30-day period. Cash bonus will be based on the total amount of direct deposit. Entry into the Program will be available 4/5/22 to 5/31/22. Full terms at sofi.com/banking. SoFi Checking and Savings is offered through SoFi Bank, N.A. Member FDIC.

SoFi members with direct deposit can earn up to 1.25% annual percentage yield (APY) interest on all account balances. There is no minimum direct deposit amount required to qualify. Members without direct deposit will earn 0.70% APY on all account balances in Checking and Savings (including Vaults). Interest rates are variable and subject to change at any time. Rate of 1.25% APY is current as of 04/05/22. Additional information at http://www.sofi.com/legal/banking-rate-sheet.

1See Rewards Details at SoFi.com/card/rewards.
SoFi cardholders earn 2% unlimited cash back when redeemed to save, invest, or pay down eligible SoFi debt. Cardholders earn 1% cash back when redeemed for a statement credit.1
Third-Party Brand Mentions: No brands or products mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third-party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.
The SoFi Credit Card is issued by The Bank of Missouri (TBOM) (“Issuer”) pursuant to license by Mastercard® International Incorporated and can be used everywhere Mastercard is accepted. Mastercard is a registered trademark, and the circles design is a trademark of Mastercard International Incorporated.
Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Photo credit: iStock/Luke Chan

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