Ideally, you would never carry credit card debt, and you’d pay off your statement balance in full every billing cycle, by the due date. Unfortunately, that doesn’t always happen. Emergencies come up. Budgets get derailed.
If you’re having trouble paying off your credit cards, know that you’re not alone.
According to the New York Fed, as reported by NerdWallet, Americans carried an average revolving credit card debt of $6,849 at the end of 2019.
It’s not necessarily a problem to have a balance on your credit card—as long as you pay it off every billing cycle. In fact, using credit cards for rewards or to build credit can be a financially healthy choice. And getting into the habit of paying off your statement balance in full by the due date is important.
But if you start to carry a credit card balance, you’re not just paying for your purchases, you’re paying hefty interest charges on top of what you’ve spent. In fact, the average household with credit card debt paid $1,162 in interest in 2019 .
The problem is when you don’t completely pay off your credit card balance each cycle, the debt can quickly pile up, even if you’re making the required minimum payments. Understanding how credit card interest and penalties compound can help you understand how to reduce your credit card debt.
How Does Credit Card Interest Work?
When you applied for a credit card, you likely read about the fees, terms, and annual percentage rate. The APR, which for credit cards is usually stated as a yearly rate, is the approximate interest percentage you will pay on balances not paid in full by the statement due date. APRs vary across credit cards and depend on your credit history, but on average, credit card APRs range from around 13% to 23% .
Most credit cards charge compounding interest, which means that you end up paying interest on the interest you accrue. Essentially, if you don’t pay your statement in full each billing cycle, interest is calculated continually and added onto your balance, which you then also pay interest on (in other words, it compounds).
For example, if you owe $100 and your interest is compounded monthly at 10%, then after the first month you’d owe $110. And after the second month, you’d owe $121.
Most credit card interest is compounded daily, so every day you owe money after the due date, the interest climbs. It’s easy to see how compounding interest can add up.
Interest compounds even if you make the minimum payments. That’s because if you just pay the minimum amount due on your monthly credit card bill, then the remainder of the debt still accrues interest, and it compounds until you pay the balance off completely.
If you are wondering how much interest you could pay on your debt, you can take a look at SoFi’s Credit Card Interest Calculator to find out.
What Happens When You Stop Paying Your Credit Card?
Unfortunately, you can’t just ignore credit card bills until they go away. If you stop paying your credit card, your balance can inflate quickly.
If you miss a payment or don’t make the minimum payment due on a bill, you will typically face a late fee or penalty. In addition, the amount you still owe on the credit card—whatever you haven’t paid—continues to accrue interest, and that gets added onto future bills.
If you miss more than two payments, then your interest rate will likely increase to a higher penalty interest rate . And once your credit card interest rate goes up to the penalty rate, it usually stays there until you make at least six on-time payments. Those details are laid out in your credit card contract, even if you didn’t read all the fine print.
If something does come up and you know you’re going to be late on a credit card payment, you should consider contacting your credit card company. Some credit card companies may offer plans to allow you to pay off just the interest or a portion of the payment due.
These options aren’t ideal, since the remaining debt still accumulates interest, but it may allow you to avoid having a delinquency on your credit report. After 30 days of being delinquent on credit card payments, you’ll be reported to all three major credit bureaus—and will be again, every 30 days thereafter, if you still haven’t paid.
As accounts become more and more past due, more fees can rack up and/or the credit card company could offer a settlement, or they could attempt to get a judgment against you for the total amount owed. They could also sell your debt to a collection agency as you get closer to the 120 days late mark.
To sum up: even if you always make the minimum payment due, if you’re not paying off the full credit card debt, then the remainder will accrue compounding interest. That can still add up, and the debt can start to feel insurmountable. But there are ways to lower your interest rate and get rid of your credit card debt before it ever spirals totally out of control.
Getting Ahead of Credit Card Debt
While it can seem like a steep, uphill climb, getting out of credit card debt is possible. It might take some serious planning and commitment, but with the right tools it’s an achievable goal.
Sometimes it can help to break it down into smaller steps so the process doesn’t seem as overwhelming. Here are some ideas for getting ahead of credit card debt:
Limiting the Use of Credit Cards
If you’re carrying credit card debt, you can try to avoid using the card while you’re getting the balance under control. Eliminating the use of your credit cards can be challenging.
Using credit cards means you’re still adding to your overall debt total, which can make it feel like you’re constantly treading water to stay afloat, instead of making progress toward eliminating your debt. One way to avoid this is to limit the use of your credit card while you take control of your debt.
Budgeting for Debt Repayment
To get serious about repaying your credit card debt, create a plan that will help you get there. One place to consider starting is revamping your budget. If you don’t have one, you may want to think about making one.
If you do have a budget, but it’s currently gathering digital dust in a spreadsheet or going unchecked in an app, it may be time to update it. Tallying up your monthly expenses and your monthly income is a good first place to start.
If you’re budgeting with a partner, including their information as well may help your budget realistically reflect your household finances. Then comes the hard part. What patterns do you see when you look at your spending habits?
To eliminate your credit card debt you may have to make some changes to your regular spending. Identifying areas where you can cut back may help you see those trouble spots. Are impulse orders on Amazon dragging you down? Overspending on new clothes? Food? Whatever it is, understanding your spending vices can help you get them under control.
As a part of this improved (or new) budget, detail your plan for reducing your debt. There are a few strategies, including the “debt avalanche” and the “debt snowball” methods.
In order to accelerate the debt repayment process both methods encourage debt holders to overpay on certain debts each month, while making the minimum payments on all other debts.
The main difference is how each strategy organizes the debts. In the debt avalanche method, the debts are organized by interest rate. The idea here is to focus on the debt with the highest interest rate. When that debt is paid off, you’d roll the payment previously allocated to it into the payment for the debt with the next highest interest rate. You’d do this until the debts are repaid completely.
In the debt snowball method, the debts are organized by balance amount. Here, efforts are focused on the debt with the smallest balance. When that is paid off fully, payments previously allocated to that debt are rolled into the debt with the next smallest amount. Continue until all the debts are paid in full.
Both strategies have pros and cons, so consider which method you’ll be most able to stick with and create a strategy that will work for you.
Finding Help (If You Need It)
If you’re still struggling with credit card debt, consider getting help from a qualified professional. A debt or credit counselor may offer resources to put you in a better position to repay your debt. They may be able to offer personalized advice or help you create a plan to achieve your goal.
How Do You Lower Your Credit Card Interest?
In addition to crafting a debt repayment plan, if you’ve accumulated a large amount of credit card debt, then it might make sense to consolidate it all with a lower-interest loan or credit card.
Balance transfer credit cards allow you to transfer your credit card debt onto a lower-interest or no-interest card, usually for a promotional period of six to 12 months, and then pay off that card.
However, these cards often come with fees and a much higher interest rate that kicks in after the promotional period has ended. So essentially, you may be setting yourself up to face the same problem all over again unless you can pay off your debt within the promotional period.
Another option is to take out an unsecured personal loan with (ideally) a lower interest rate. Essentially, you’d use the personal loan to consolidate and/or pay off your credit card(s) balances, and then you’d pay off the personal loan.
You could choose a fixed interest rate on most personal loans, which means the interest won’t compound and the rate won’t change over the life of the loan. Personal loans just require you to make one simple monthly payment, over a set period of time (no revolving debt here); you can typically work with the lender to find a repayment timeline that works for you.
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