Other than three letters and hours long exams, do the SAT and ACT have much in common? After taking both, students receive a score from each, but the ranges between the two vary wildly.
It’s possible to compare test scores across the two tests using a simple conversion chart or formula. It’s also worth understanding how the two tests are different, and what a student can expect when taking each test.
In 1926, the SAT was developed as the Army Alpha, to measure the IQ of Army recruits. Over time, the format and audience for the Scholastic Aptitude Test changed. The scoring method, format, and subjects have been adjusted over the years to better reflect the high school curriculum and college application process.
The current version of the SAT takes three hours (three hours and 50 minutes when including the essay portion) and includes sections on math, reading comprehension, and writing, and the optional essay section. The highest score a person can achieve on the SAT is 1600.
The American College Test, created in reaction to the SAT, was first administered in 1959. University of Iowa professor of education Everett Franklin Linquist developed the standardized test to better evaluate a student’s practical knowledge instead of reasoning skills that the SAT focuses on.
The modern ACT takes two hours and 55 minutes (add 40 for the optional writing section) to complete. The test includes sections on English, math, reading, and science, and the optional writing portion. The highest score possible is 36.
Colleges and universities generally accept both the ACT and SAT, but prepping for and taking the two tests is not the same. Understanding the differences between the ACT and SAT might help students decide which test to take and how they might best maximize their score.
How Do the SAT and ACT Differ?
Other than the score a test taker receives, the SAT and ACT have several differences that might inform a student’s decision to prepare for one over another. Students are taking both tests now more than ever, but preparing for each is different, and it’s possible to prefer one test experience over another.
One of the most obvious differences between the two tests is the score. An ACT score ranges from 1 to 36, and there’s no penalty for getting a question wrong. The score is calculated by adding the raw scores of each section, then dividing by four to get the composite score (out of 36).
SAT takers get a score between 400 and 1600. Once again, there’s no penalty for answering a question wrong, and the score goes up with every right answer. Section scores are added together to yield the total score (out of 1600).
Type of Testing
There’s a common belief that students’ strengths in the classroom might allow them to test better on one standardized test over the other. The ACT, with a deeper focus on verbal skills, might be a better fit for students who excel in English classes. Those with strong math skills could prefer the SAT, with a bigger emphasis on math questions.
Both tests have a math section, but the SAT covers data analysis, while the ACT will have questions about probability and statistics.
Format and Subjects
Even when the essay portion is included, the ACT is shorter than the SAT. However, the SAT has 154 questions, while the ACT has 215—how does that compute? SAT takers have an average of one minute and 10 seconds on each question, compared with 49 seconds for the ACT.
Time per question could be important to a student’s test taking strategy, especially when factoring in the difficulty levels of each test. In the SAT’s math section, the questions become harder the further a student moves along. The same goes for the ACT’s math section, as well as its science section, where passages and the questions become more difficult as the test progresses.
The ACT has more sections than the SAT, including multiple-choice questions on:
• English: grammar, punctuation, sentence structure
• Math: algebra, geometry, trigonometry
• Reading: passage comprehension on fiction, humanities, and sciences
• Science: comprehension, including summaries, charts, and graphs
• Writing (optional)
The SAT has fewer sections, with all multiple-choice questions about:
• Reading: comprehension questions based on passages
• Writing and language: grammar, editing, and vocabulary
• Math: algebra, trigonometry, and geometry
• Essay (optional)
The major differentiator between the SAT and ACT experience might be the ACT’s dedicated science section. The SAT includes questions about science, but they are dispersed across the test.
The cost of taking the SAT and ACT is similar:
• SAT: $46, $60 with optional essay
• ACT: $50, $67 with optional essay
The cost of taking the test shouldn’t keep a student from doing so. Both the College Board and ACT offer fee waivers for students who meet the requirements.
Because the ACT was founded out of a Midwestern university, the test is somewhat more popular in middle America. The SAT has its origins in testing aptitude for admission to Northeastern educational Army institutions. Students on the East and West coasts are slightly more likely to take the SAT than the ACT.
Because of these geographic trends, students on the coasts might find more SAT prep courses than ACT prep courses, and vice versa.
Converting Test Scores
SAT to ACT conversion is a hot topic. Comparing the tests on their face is like comparing apples to oranges. However, if a student takes both, it helps to figure out which one they performed better on. That means finding a way to compare one test score to another.
Here’s how the ACT’s composite scores compare to the SAT:
|ACT Score||SAT Range|
Other Important Numbers
With test scores converted, here are other figures to consider: college tuition, fees, meal plans, housing, books, parking fees, and so on.
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