Pros & Cons of the F.I.R.E Movement

Most people dream of the day that they clock into work for the very last time. In most cases, we imagine that’ll be when we’re in our 60s. But what if you could take the freedom and independence of retirement and experience it 20 or 30 years earlier?

That’s the basic principle of the Financial Independence Retire Early (F.I.R.E) movement, a community of young people who aim to live a lifestyle that allows them to retire in their 30s or 40s rather than their 60s and 70s.

While it may sound like the perfect life hack, attempting to live out this dream comes with some serious challenges. Read on to learn more about the F.I.R.E. movement and the techniques followers use achieve their goal of early retirement. That can help you determine whether any of their savings strategies might be right for you.

What Is the FIRE Movement?

F.I.R.E stands for “financial independence, retire early,” and it’s a movement where followers attempt to gain enough wealth to retire far earlier than the traditional timeline would allow.

The movement traces its roots to a 1992 book called “Your Money or Your Life” by Vicki Robin and Joe Dominguez. F.I.R.E. started to gain a lot of traction, particularly among millennials, in the 2010s.

In order to achieve retirement at such a young age, F.I.R.E proponents devote 50% to 75% of their income to savings. They also use dividend-paying investments in order to create passive income sources they can use to support themselves throughout their retired lives.

Of course, accumulating the amount of wealth needed to live for six decades or more without working is a considerable feat, and not everyone who attempts F.I.R.E. succeeds.

💡 Quick Tip: Did you know that opening a brokerage account typically doesn’t come with any setup costs? Often, the only requirement to open a brokerage account — aside from providing personal details — is making an initial deposit.

F.I.R.E. vs. Traditional Retirement

F.I.R.E. and traditional retirement both aim to help people figure out when they can retire, but there are major differences between the two.

Retiring Early

Given the challenge many people have of saving enough for retirement even by age 60 or 70, what kinds of lengths do the advocates of the F.I.R.E. movement go to?

Some early retirees blog about their experiences and offer tips to help others follow in their footsteps. For instance, Mr. Money Mustache is a prominent figure in the F.I.R.E. community, and advocates achieving financial freedom through, in his words, “badassity.”

His specific advice includes reshaping simple but expensive habits—like eliminating smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol, and limiting dining out.

Of course, the basic premise of making financial freedom a reality is simple in theory: spend (much) less money than you make in order to accumulate a substantial balance of savings.

Investing those savings can potentially make the process more attainable by providing, in the best-case scenario, an ongoing passive income stream. However, many people who achieve F.I.R.E. are able to do so in part because of generational wealth or special circumstances that aren’t guaranteed.

For instance, Mr. Money Mustache and his wife both studied engineering and computer science and had “standard tech-industry cubicle jobs,” which tend to pay pretty well—and require educational and professional opportunities not all people can access.

In almost all cases, pursuing retirement with the F.I.R.E. movement requires a lifestyle that could best be described as basic, foregoing common social and leisure enjoyments like restaurant dining and travel.

Target Age for Early Retirement

Early retirement means different things to different people. While some individuals may consider age 55 to be an early retirement, FIRE proponents aspire to retire in their 40s or even in their 30s, if possible.

According to the 2024 SoFi Retirement Survey, 12% of respondents say their target retirement age is 49 or younger. Men were more likely than women to choose this response.

Of those whose target retirement age is 49 or younger:

•   66% have a household income of less than $100,000

•   60% are men,

•   47% are single

•   27% are age 24 or younger

Source: SoFi Retirement Survey, April 2024

Saving Strategies for Retiring Early

Retiring early can involve making some serious adjustments to an individual’s current lifestyle. People who follow the FIRE movement generally try to put 50% to 75% of their income in savings. That can be challenging because once they pay their bills, there may not be much leftover for things like going to the movies or having dinner out.

Of the SoFi survey respondents who say they want to retire at age 49 or younger, 18% are not using any strategies that might help them retire early. Most of the rest are working on it, however — and these are the strategies they’re using to try to retire early:

•   40%: Non-retirement investment accounts (such as brokerage accounts, real estate,and so on)

•   36%: FIRE strategies

•   29%: Maxing out tax advantaged accounts (401(k)s, IRAs, HSAs, etc.)

•   24%: Debt payment strategies such as the snowball and avalanche

•   23%: Roth conversion ladder

•   21%: Working a second job/passive income

Traditional Retirement

Most working people expect to retire sometime around the age of 65 or so. For those born after 1960, Social Security benefits can begin at age 62, but those benefits will be significantly less than they would be if an individual waited until 67, their full retirement age, to collect them.

People saving for traditional retirement typically save much of their retirement funds in tax-incentivized retirement accounts, like 401(k)s and traditional IRAs, which carry age-related restrictions. For example, 401(k)s generally can’t be accessed before age 59½ without incurring a penalty.

Even a traditional retirement timeline can be difficult for many savers. Recent data from the Federal Reserve shows that approximately 25% of Americans have no retirement savings whatsoever. Still, Americans between the ages of 25 to 40 plan to retire at age 59, according to a 2022 survey.

Online calculators and budgeting tools can help you determine when you can retire—and are customizable to your exact retirement goals and specifications.

💡 Haven’t started an IRA yet? Check out: How to Open an IRA

Financial Independence Retire Early: Pros and Cons

Although financial independence and early retirement are undoubtedly appealing, getting there isn’t all sunshine and rainbows. There are both strong benefits and drawbacks to this financial approach that individuals should weigh before undertaking the F.I.R.E. strategy.

Pros of the F.I.R.E. Approach

Benefits of the F.I.R.E. lifestyle include:

•  Having more flexibility with your time. Those who retire at 35 or 40, as opposed to 65 or 70, have more of their lifetime to spend pursuing and enjoying the activities they choose.

•  Building a meaningful, passion-filled life. Retiring early can be immensely freeing, allowing someone to shirk the so-called golden handcuffs of a job or career. When earning money isn’t the primary energy expenditure, more opportunities to follow one’s true calling can be taken.

•  Learning to live below one’s means. “Lifestyle inflation” can be a problem among many working-age people who find themselves spending more money as they earn more income. The savings strategies necessary to achieve early retirement and financial independence require its advocates to learn to live frugally, or follow a minimalist lifestyle, which can help them save more money in the long run—even if they don’t end up actually retiring early.

•   Less stress. Money is one of the leading stressors for many Americans. Gaining enough wealth to live comfortably without working could wipe out a major cause of stress, which could lead to a more enjoyable, and healthier, life.

Cons of the F.I.R.E. Approach

Drawbacks of the F.I.R.E. lifestyle include:

•  Unpredictability of the future. Although many people seeking early retirement thoroughly map out their financial plans, the future is unpredictable. Social programs and tax structures, which may figure into future budgeting, can change unexpectedly, and life can also throw wrenches into the plan. For instance, a major illness or an unexpected child could wreak havoc on even the best-laid plans for financial independence.

•  Some find retirement boring. While never having to go to work again might sound heavenly to those on the job, some people who do achieve financial security and independence and early retirement struggle with filling their free time. Without a career or specific non-career goals, the years without work can feel unsatisfying.

•  Fewer professional opportunities. If someone achieves F.I.R.E. and then discovers it’s not right for them—or must re-enter the workforce due to an extenuating circumstance—they may find reintegration challenging. Without a history of continuous job experience, one’s skill set may not match the needs of the economy, and job searching, even in the best of circumstances, may be difficult.

•  F.I.R.E. is hard! Even the most dedicated advocates of the financial independence and early retirement approach acknowledge that the lifestyle can be difficult—both in the extreme savings strategies necessary to achieve it and in the ways it changes day-to-day life. For instance, extroverts might find it difficult to forgo social activities like eating out or traveling with friends. Others may find it challenging to create a sense of personal identity that doesn’t revolve around a career.

Investing for F.I.R.E.

Investing allows F.I.R.E. advocates—and others—to earn income in two important ways: dividends and market appreciation.

Dividends

Shareholders earn dividend income when companies have excess profits. Dividends are generally offered on a quarterly basis, and if you hold shares of a stock you could earn them.

However, because dividend payments depend on company performance, they’re not guaranteed, those relying on them to live should have other income sources (including substantial savings accounts) as a back up income stream.

Market Appreciation

Investors can also earn profits through market appreciation when they sell stocks and other assets for a higher price than what they initially paid for them.

Even for those who seek retirement at a traditional pace, stock investing is a common strategy to create the kind of compound growth over time that can build a substantial nest egg. There are many accounts built specifically for retirement investing, such as 401(k)s, IRAs, and 403(b) plans.

However, these accounts carry age-related restrictions and contribution limits which means that those interested in pursuing retirement on a F.I.R.E. timeline will need to explore additional types of accounts and saving and investing options.

For example, brokerage accounts allow investors to access their funds at any point—and to customize the way they allocate their assets to maximize growth.

The Takeaway

Whether you’re hoping to retire in a traditional fashion, shorten your retirement timeline, or are just looking to increase your wealth to achieve shorter-term financial goals, like buying a new car—investing can be one of the most effective ways to reach your objectives.

Ready to invest in your goals? It’s easy to get started when you open an investment account with SoFi Invest. You can invest in stocks, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), mutual funds, alternative funds, and more. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

Invest with as little as $5 with a SoFi Active Investing account.



SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Third-Party Brand Mentions: No brands, products, or companies mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third-party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

External Websites: The information and analysis provided through hyperlinks to third-party websites, while believed to be accurate, cannot be guaranteed by SoFi. Links are provided for informational purposes and should not be viewed as an endorsement.

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Benefits, Drawbacks, and Options of a Self-Directed 401(k) Plan

Benefits, Drawbacks, and Options of a Self-Directed 401(k) Plan

Self-directed 401(k) accounts aren’t as common as managed or target-date 401(k) plans, but they can be of real value for DIY-minded investors.

What is a self-directed 401(k)? These 401(k) plans — which may be employer-sponsored or available as a solo 401(k) for self-employed individuals — expand account holders’ investment choices, giving them more control over their own retirement plans. Instead of being limited to a packaged fund, an investor can choose specific stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and sometimes even alternative investments, in which to invest their retirement money.

What Is a Self-Directed 401(k) Account?

The key promise of self-directed 401(k) plans is control. They allow retirement plan savers to basically act as a trustee for their own retirement funds.

A self-directed 401(k) plan offers expanded investment choices, from stocks, bonds, funds, and cash, to alternative investments like Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) and commodities.

For a plan holder who believes they have the investment know-how to leverage better returns than a managed fund or target-date fund, a self-directed 401(k) can be an appealing choice.

💡 Quick Tip: Look for an online brokerage with low trading commissions as well as no account minimum. Higher fees can cut into investment returns over time.

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Who Is Eligible for a Self-Directed 401(k)?

As long as your employer offers a self-directed 401(k), and you have earned taxable income for the current calendar year, you can enroll.

Alternatively, if you are self-employed and own and run a small business alone, with no employees (aside from a spouse), and your business earns an income, you are also eligible. You can search for a financial institution that offers self-directed plans, which might include a solo 401(k).

This is one of the self-employed retirement options you may want to consider.

How to Set Up a Self-Directed 401(k)

Setting up a self-managed 401(k) plan can be fairly straightforward. Once a 401(k) account is established, employees can fund it in the following ways:

•   Plan transfer. An employee can shift funds from previous or existing 401(k) plans and individual retirement accounts (IRAs). However, Roth IRAs can’t be transferred.

•   Profit sharing. An employee receiving funds from a company through profit sharing can use that money to open a self-directed 401(k) plan — up to 25% of the profit share amount.

•   Direct plan contributions. Any income related to employment can be contributed to a self-directed 401(k) plan.

Recommended: How to Manage Your 401(k)

Pros and Cons of Self-Directed 401(k)s

Like most investment vehicles, self-managed 401(k) plans have their upsides and downsides.

Pros of Self-Directed 401(k) Plans

These attributes are at the top of the self-directed 401(k) plan “advantages” list:

•   More options. Self-directed 401(k) plans allow retirement savers to gain more control, flexibility, and expanded investment choices compared to traditional 40k plans, putting their money exactly where they want — without relying on established funds.

•   Tax deferral. Like regular 401(k) plans, all self-directed 401(k) plan contributions and asset gains are tax-deferred.

•   Employee matching. Self-directed 401(k) plans make room for employer matching plan contributions, thus potentially paving the way for more robust retirement plan growth.

•   Plan diversity. Account holders can invest in assets not typically offered to 401(k) plan investors. Alternative investments like real estate, gold, silver and other commodities, and private companies are allowed, thus lending additional potential for diversity to self-directed 401(k) plans.

Cons of Self-Directed 401(k) Plans

These caveats and concerns are most often associated with self-directed 401(k) plans:

•   Higher-risk investments. Historically, alternative investments like precious metals and real estate come with more volatility — and hence more risk — than stocks and bonds.

•   Diversification is on you. You’ll need to choose among stocks, bonds and funds to augment your self-directed 401(k) plan asset allocation.

•   Higher fees. Typically, self-directed employer retirement plans cost employees more to manage, especially if an investor makes frequent trades.

•   Larger time investment. Since self-directed 401(k) plans offer access to more investment platforms, savers will likely need to spend more time doing their due diligence to research, select, and manage (especially in the area of risk assessment) their plan options.

How Much Money Can be Put in a Self-Directed IRA?

The amount an investor can contribute to a self-directed IRA is the same as the amount that can be contributed to a traditional IRA savings account. For 2023, the limit is $6,500. Those aged 50 and older can also make an additional catch-up contribution of $1,000 in 2023.

For a self-directed 401(k), the amount that can be contributed is the same as the contribution limits for a traditional 401(k). For 2023, the limit is $22,500. For those age 50 and older, there is the option of making an additional catch-up contribution of up to $7,500. That means an individual 50 or older could contribute as much as $30,000 to a self-directed 401(k) in 2023.

Recommended: IRA vs 401(k)

Common Self-Directed 401(k) Investments

The ability to choose from an expanded list of investment categories is an intriguing benefit for a 401(k) plan holder who believes they have the investment know-how to leverage better returns from investments like self-directed 401(k) real estate, precious metals, or shares of private companies, among other eligible alternative investments.

For any retirement saver looking to leverage those options, the key is understanding what potential opportunities and what risks those extra self-directed investment vehicles bring to the table. Here’s a closer look at two of the more common alternative investments linked to self-directed 401(k) plans.

Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)

Investing in real estate simply means investing in residential or commercial properties, or real estate funds, with the goal of income generation. A self-directed 401(k) plan allows for real estate investing outside of the plan holder’s personal residence.

Examples of residential properties include:

•   Single-family homes

•   Condos

•   Townhouses

Examples of commercial real estate include:

•   Multi family homes

•   Office or retail buildings

•   Storage facilities and warehouses

To invest in real estate with a self-directed 401(k) plan, an investor would use their 401(k) funds to purchase the property, as well as to pay for maintenance, taxes, and other property-related expenses.

Real estate can be cyclical in nature, and can require large amounts of cash when investing in direct real estate properties. Thus, risk of investment loss is real and must be treated prudently by self-directed 401(k) real estate investors.

Precious metals

Investing in “hard commodities” like gold, silver, titanium, copper, zinc, and bronze, among other metals, are allowable with self-directed 401(k) plans. Self-directed 401(k) plan participants can either invest in precious metals directly, like buying gold bullion or coins, or invest in precious metals via stocks or precious metal funds.

Precious metal investing can be high risk, as gold, silver, and other metals can be highly volatile in value. As with real estate, investors have to be able to ride out chaotic market periods for commodities — but for some, the potential payoff may be worth it.

Investments That Aren’t Allowed Under Self-Directed 401(k) Plan Rules

While the list of investment vehicles that are included in a self-directed 401(k) plan are substantial, regulatory rules do prohibit specific investment activities tied to several of those asset classes. The following investment strategies and associated transactions, for example, would not pass muster in self-directed 401(k) plans.

Real Estate with Family Ties

While investing in real estate is allowed in a self-directed 401(k) plan, using that real estate for extended personal gain is not allowed. For example, that could include buying an apartment and allowing a family member to live there, or purchasing a slice of a family business and holding it as a 401(k) plan asset. Neither of these scenarios is allowed under 401(k) plan regulatory rules.

Loans

Self-directed 401(k) plan consumers may not loan any plan money to family members or sign any loan guarantees on funds used in a self-directed 401(k) plan.

No Investment Benefit Beyond Asset Returns

Self-directed 401(k) plan holders cannot earn “extra” funds through transactions linked to plan assets. For example, a plan holder can buy a real estate property under 401(k) plan rules but he or she cannot charge any management fees nor receive any commissions from the sale of that property.

Basically, a self-directed 401(k) plan participant cannot invest in any asset category that leads to that plan participant garnering a financial benefit that goes beyond the investment appreciation of that asset. That means not using 401(k) funds to purchase a personal residence or investing in assets like investments of collectibles (i.e. vehicles, paintings or jewelry or real estate properties that the plan participant personally uses.

Manage Your Retirement Savings With SoFi

While self-directed 401(k) plans can add value to a retirement fund, self-directed retirement planning is not for everyone.

This type of account requires more hands-on involvement from the plan holder than a typical target-date or managed fund might. Additionally, investing in alternative investments like precious metals, real estate, and other risk-laden investment vehicles, require a realistic outlook on downside risk and a healthy knowledge of how investments work beyond stocks, bonds, and funds.

In the meantime, you might want to consider rolling over any old 401(k) accounts to an IRA rollover to better manage your retirement savings overall.

Ready to invest for your retirement? It’s easy to get started when you open a traditional or Roth IRA with SoFi. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

Easily manage your retirement savings with a SoFi IRA.

FAQ

What is the difference between an individual 401(k) and a self-directed 401(k)?

A self-directed 401(k) gives account holders more investment choices, as well as more control over their own retirement plans. Instead of being limited to a packaged fund as they would be with an individual 401(k), an investor can choose specific stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and even alternative investments, in which to invest their retirement money.

Can I roll my traditional 401(k) into a self-directed 401(k)?

Yes. You can shift funds from a previous or existing 401(k) plan or individual retirement account (IRA) into a self-directed 401(k). The exception is a Roth IRA, which can’t be transferred.

How is a self-directed 401(k) taxed?

Like regular 401(k) plans, all self-directed 401(k) plan contributions and asset gains are tax-deferred until withdrawn. With self-directed 401(k)’s, there is a 10% tax penalty for early withdrawals (before age 59 ½), the same as with traditional 401(k)s.


Third-Party Brand Mentions: No brands, products, or companies mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third-party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.

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man and father drinking wine

Inherited 401(k): Rules and Tax Information

When you inherit a 401(k) retirement account, there are tax rules and other guidelines that beneficiaries must follow in order to make the most of their inheritance.

Inheriting a 401(k) isn’t like getting a simple inheritance, e.g. cash, property, or jewelry. How you as the beneficiary must handle the account is determined by your relationship to the deceased, your age, and other factors.

Understanding the tax treatment of an inherited 401(k) is especially important, as 401(k) accounts are tax-deferred vehicles, so regardless of your status as a beneficiary you will owe taxes on the withdrawals from the account, now or later.

What Is an Inherited 401(k)?

As the name suggests, an inherited 401(k) is an employer-sponsored retirement plan that is bequeathed to an individual, either a spouse or a non-spouse.

When an individual sets up their 401(k) to begin with, they generally fill out a beneficiary form. This form may include their spouse (if the account holder was married), children, siblings, or others.

In most cases, when the account holder of a 401(k) dies, the account is automatically bequeathed to the surviving spouse, unless the will specifies otherwise. This is not the case if your partner dies and you weren’t married. In that case, the 401(k) does not pass to the surviving partner, unless they are officially designated as an account beneficiary.

What to Do If You’re Inheriting a 401(k)

The rules for inheriting a 401(k) are different when you inherit the account from a spouse versus someone who wasn’t your spouse. Depending on your relationship, you’ll have different options for what you can do with the money and how those options affect your tax situation.

Remember, a 401(k) is a tax-deferred retirement account, and the beneficiary will owe taxes on any withdrawals from that account, based on their marginal tax rate.

💡 Quick Tip: Did you know that a traditional Individual Retirement Account, or IRA, is a tax-deferred account? That means you don’t pay taxes on the money you put in it (up to an annual limit) or the gains you earn, until you retire and start making withdrawals.

Inheriting a 401(k) From a Spouse

A spouse has a number of options when inheriting an IRA. But be careful; there are a number of wrinkles given that the rules have changed in the last few years.

•   You could rollover the inherited 401(k) into your own 401(k) or into an inherited IRA: For most spouses, taking control of an inherited 401(k) by rolling over the funds is often the smartest choice. A rollover gives the money more time to grow, which could be useful as part of your own retirement strategy. Also, rollovers do not incur penalties or taxes. (But if you convert funds from a traditional 401(k) to a Roth 401(k) or a Roth IRA, you will likely owe taxes on the conversion to a Roth account.)

Also remember that once the rollover is complete, traditional 401(k) or IRA rules apply, meaning you’ll face a 10% penalty for early withdrawals before age 59 ½.

And when you reach age 73, you must start taking required minimum distributions (RMDs). Because RMD rules have recently changed, owing to the SECURE Act 2.0, it may be wise to consult a financial professional to determine the strategy that’s best for you.

Recommended: How to Make a Will

•   Take a lump sum distribution: Withdrawing all the money at once will not incur a 10% early withdrawal penalty as long as you’re over 59 ½, but you’ll owe income tax on the money in the year you withdraw it — and the amount you withdraw could put you into a higher tax bracket.

•   You can reject or disclaim the inherited account, passing it to the next beneficiary.

•   Last, you could leave the inherited 401(k) where it is: If you don’t touch or transfer the inherited 401(k), you are required to take RMDs if you’re at least 73. If you’re not yet 73, other rules apply and you may want to consult a professional.

Inheriting a 401(k) from a Non-Spouse

The options for a non-spouse beneficiary (e.g. a child, sibling, etc.) are far more limited. For example, as a non-spouse beneficiary you cannot rollover an inherited 401(k) into your own retirement account.

•   You can “disclaim” or basically reject the inherited account.

•   If the account holder died in 2019 or earlier, you can take withdrawals for up to 5 years — as long as the account is empty after the 5-year period. If the account holder died in 2020 or after, you have 10 years to withdraw all the funds. You must start taking withdrawals starting no later than Dec. 31 of the year after the death of the account holder. These rules are known as the 5-year and 10-year rules.

•   A positive point to remember: If you are a non-spouse beneficiary and younger than 59 ½ at the time the withdrawals begin, you won’t face a 10% penalty for early withdrawals.

The exception to this rule is if you’re a minor child, chronically ill or disabled, or not more than 10 years younger than the deceased, you can take distributions throughout your life.

💡 Quick Tip: Before opening a brokerage account, know your investment objectives, time horizon, and risk tolerance. These fundamentals will help keep your strategy on track and with the aim of meeting your goals.

How RMDs Impact Inherited 401(k)s

If the account holder died prior to Jan. 1, 2020, anyone can use the so-called “life expectancy method” to withdraw funds from an inherited IRA. That means taking required minimum distributions, or RMDs, based on your own life expectancy per the IRS Single Life Table (Publication 590-B).

But if the account holder died after Dec. 31, 2019, the SECURE Act (also known as the “Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement Act of 2019”) outlines different withdrawal rules for those who are defined as eligible designated beneficiaries.

What Is an Eligible Designated Beneficiary?

To be an eligible-designated beneficiary, and be allowed to take RMDs based on your own life expectancy, an individual must be one of the following:

•   A surviving spouse

•   No more than 10 years younger than the original account holder at the time of their death

•   Chronically ill

•   Disabled

•   A minor child

Individuals who are not eligible-designated beneficiaries must distribute (i.e. withdraw) all the funds in the account by December 31st of the 10th year of the account owner’s death.

Eligible-designated beneficiaries are exempt from the 10-year rule: With the exception of minor children, they can take distributions over their life expectancy.

Minor children must take any remaining distributions within 10 years after their 18th birthday.

How to Handle Unclaimed Financial Assets

What if someone dies, leaving a 401(k) or other assets, but without a will or other legally binding document outlining the distribution of those assets?

That money, or the assets in question, may become “unclaimed” after a designated period of time. Unclaimed assets may include money, but can also refer to bank or retirement accounts, property (e.g. real estate or vehicles), physical assets such as jewelry.

Unclaimed assets are often turned over to the state where that person lived. However, it is possible for relatives to claim the assets through the appropriate channels. In most cases, it’s incumbent on the claimant to provide supporting evidence for their claim, since the deceased did not leave a will or other documentation officially bequeathing the money to that person.

The Takeaway

Inheriting a 401(k) can be a wonderful and sometimes unexpected financial gift. It’s also a complicated one. For anyone who inherits a 401(k) — spouse or otherwise — it can be helpful to review the options for what to do with the account, in addition to the rules that come with each choice.

In some cases, the beneficiary may have to take required distributions (withdrawals) based on their age. In some cases, those required withdrawals may be waived. In almost all cases, withdrawals from the inherited 401(k) will be taxed at the heir’s marginal tax rate.

Ready to invest for your retirement? It’s easy to get started when you open a traditional or Roth IRA with SoFi. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

Easily manage your retirement savings with SoFi.


SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

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Inherited IRA: Distribution Rules for Beneficiaries

Inherited IRA Distribution Rules Explained

When an IRA account holder passes away, they might choose to leave their account to a loved one. But whether the recipient is surprised or knew about the inheritance ahead of time, they may have questions about what to do with this inherited IRA.

How does an inherited IRA work? The key to properly handling an inherited IRA is to understand what it means for you as a beneficiary. Your relationship with the deceased, for example, could impact the tax consequences on the inheritance. Plus there are inherited IRA distribution rules you’ll need to know.

An inherited IRA can also be a tremendous financial opportunity, as long as you understand the inheritance IRA rules. Here’s what you should know about the beneficiary IRA distribution rules.

What Is An Inherited IRA?

An inherited IRA, also called a beneficiary IRA, is a type of account you open to hold the funds passed down to you from a deceased person’s IRA. The original retirement account could have been any IRA, such as a Roth, traditional IRA, SEP IRA, or SIMPLE IRA. The deceased’s 401(k) plan can also be used to fund an inherited IRA.

Spouses won’t necessarily need to open an inherited IRA, because spouses are allowed to transfer any inherited assets directly into their own retirement accounts. However, any other beneficiary of the deceased’s account — such as someone who inherited an IRA from a parent — will need to open an inherited IRA, whether or not they already have a retirement account.

Some people prefer to open their inherited IRA account with the same firm that initially held the money for the deceased. It can make it simpler for the beneficiary while planning after the loved one’s passing. However, you can set up your account with almost any bank or brokerage.

💡 Quick Tip: Did you know that opening a brokerage account online typically doesn’t come with any setup costs? Often, the only requirement to open a brokerage account — aside from providing personal details — is making an initial deposit.

How Does an Inherited IRA Work?

When it comes to IRAs, there are two types of beneficiaries: designated and non-designated. Designated includes people, such as a spouse, child, or friend. Non-designated beneficiaries are entities like estates, charities, and trusts.

This article focuses on designated beneficiaries. While your relationship with the deceased may impact your options and any inherited IRA distribution rules, as can the age of the deceased at the time of death, certain inheritance IRA rules apply to everyone:

1.    You cannot make additional contributions to the inherited IRA. You can only make changes to the investments or buy and sell assets held by the IRA.

2.    You must withdraw from the inherited IRA. The required minimum distribution (RMD) rules depend on your age and relationship to the deceased, but according to inherited Roth IRA distribution rules, withdrawals are required even if the original IRA was a Roth IRA (which typically does not have RMD requirements).

What are The RMD Rules For Inherited IRAs?

When it comes to required minimum distributions, there are different rules for inherited IRA RMDs for spouses and non-spouses.

One recent difference between the rules for spouse and non-spouse beneficiaries is a result of the SECURE Act, established in early 2020. It states that non-spouse beneficiaries have to withdraw all the funds from their inherited IRA within a maximum of 10 years. After that time, the IRS will impose a 50% penalty tax on any funds remaining.

Spouses, on the other hand, can take yearly distributions from the account based on their own life expectancy.

RMD Rules for Spouses

Once a spouse takes ownership of the deceased’s IRA account, they can either roll over the assets into their own pre-existing IRA within 60 days, or transfer funds to their newly opened inherited IRA they can withdraw based on their age.

Note that taking a distribution from the account if you are under age 59 ½ results in a 10% early withdrawal penalty.

RMD Rules for Non-Spouses

For non-spouses (relatives, friends, and grown children who inherited an IRA from a parent), once you’ve opened an inherited IRA and transferred the inherited funds into it, RMDs generally must start before December 31st following a year from the person’s death. All assets must be withdrawn within 10 years, though there are some exceptions: if the heir is disabled, more than a decade younger than the original account owner, or a minor.

💡 Quick Tip: Did you know that a traditional Individual Retirement Account, or IRA, is a tax-deferred account? That means you don’t pay taxes on the money you put in it (up to an annual limit) or the gains you earn, until you retire and start making withdrawals.

Multiple Beneficiaries

If there is more than one beneficiary of an inherited IRA, the IRA can be split into different accounts so that there is one for each person. However, in general, you must each start taking RMDs by December 31st of the year following the year of the original account holder’s death, and all assets must be withdrawn from each account within 10 years (aside from the exceptions noted above).

Inherited IRA Situation Examples

These are some of the different instances of inherited IRAs and how they can be handled.

Spouse inherits and becomes the owner of the IRA: When the surviving spouse is the sole beneficiary of the IRA, they can opt to become the owner of it by rolling over the funds into their own IRA. The rollover must be done within 60 days.This could be a good option for someone who is younger than the original owner of the IRA because it delays the RMDs until the surviving spouse turns 73.

Non-spouse designated beneficiaries: An adult child or friend of the original IRA owner can open an inherited IRA account and transfer the inherited funds into it. They generally must start taking RMDs by December 31 of the year after the year in which the original account holder passed away. And they must withdraw all funds from the account 10 years after the original owner’s death.

Both a spouse and a non-spouse inherit the IRA: In this instance of multiple beneficiaries, the original account can be split into two new accounts. That way, each person can proceed by following the RMD rules for their specific situation.

How Do I Avoid Taxes on An Inherited IRA?

Money from IRAs is generally taxed upon withdrawals, so your ordinary tax rate would apply to any tax-deferred IRA that was inherited — traditional, SEP IRA, or SIMPLE IRA.

However, if you have inherited the deceased’s Roth IRA, which allows for tax-free distributions, you should be able to make withdrawals tax-free, as long as the original account was set up at least five years ago.

Spouses who inherit Roth accounts have an extra opportunity to mitigate the bite of taxes. Since spousal heirs have the power to take ownership of the original account, they can convert their own IRA into a Roth IRA after the funds roll over. Though the spouse would be expected to pay taxes on the amount converted, it may ultimately be financially beneficial if they expect higher taxes during their retirement.

Recommended: Is a Backdoor Roth IRA Right For You?

The Takeaway

Once you inherit an IRA, it’s up to you to familiarize yourself with the inherited IRA rules and requirements that apply to your specific situation. No matter what your circumstance, inheriting an IRA account has the potential to put you in a better financial position in your own retirement.

Ready to invest for your retirement? It’s easy to get started when you open a traditional or Roth IRA with SoFi. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

Help grow your nest egg with a SoFi IRA.

FAQ

Are RMDs required for inherited IRAs in 2023?

The IRS recently delayed the final RMD rule changes regarding inherited IRAs to calendar year 2024. That’s because rules regarding RMDs have changed in the last few years, leaving many people confused. What this means is that the IRS will, in some cases, waive penalties for missed RMDs on inherited IRAs in 2023 — but only if the original owner died after 2019 and had already started taking RMDs.

What are the disadvantages of an inherited IRA?

The disadvantages of an inherited IRA is knowing how to navigate and follow the many complex rules regarding distributions and RMDs, and understanding the tax implications for your specific situation. However, it’s important to realize that an inherited IRA is a financial opportunity and it could help provide you with money for your own retirement.

How do you calculate your required minimum distribution?

To help calculate your required minimum distribution, you can consult IRS Publication 590-B. There you can find information and tables to help you determine what your specific RMD would be.


Photo credit: iStock/shapecharge

Third-Party Brand Mentions: No brands, products, or companies mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third-party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

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Should You Use Your 401(k) as a First-Time Home Buyer?

Withdrawing money from a 401(k) to buy a house may be allowed by your company-sponsored plan, but this tactic is not always advisable, especially for first-time home buyers.

When it comes to using money from a 401(k), first-time home buyers need to keep in mind a few things, including the rules and penalties around early withdrawals from a 401(k) account — as well as the potential loss of retirement savings.

Before you consider using a 401k to buy a house, explore alternatives like withdrawing funds from a Roth IRA, seeking help from a Down Payment Assistance Program (DAP), or seeing if you qualify for other types of home loans.

Let’s take a look at the pros, cons, and important considerations that can help prospective homebuyers make a more informed decision about using funds from a 401(k) to buy a home.

Can You Use a 401(k) to Buy a House?

Before you quickly search up “401k first time home buyer,” here’s the answer: If you’re a first-time home buyer, and your employer plan allows it, you can use your 401(k) to help buy a house. There are a couple of ways to access the funds.

First, it’s possible for a first-time homebuyer to take a loan from an existing 401(k). Your employer generally sets the rules for 401(k) loans, but you typically must pay back the loan, with interest, within five years. You pay yourself interest to help offset the loss of investment growth, since the funds are no longer invested in the market.

You can take out a 401(k) loan for a few different reasons (e.g., qualified educational expenses, medical expenses), depending on your plan’s policies. Those using a loan to purchase a residence may have more time to pay back the loan.

In certain rare circumstances, in the case of an “immediate and heavy financial need,” the IRS will allow you to make a 401(k) hardship withdrawal to purchase a primary residence. Hardship withdrawals do not cover mortgage payments, but using a 401(k) for a down payment for a first-time home buyer could be allowed.

The IRS has very strict rules for qualifying for a hardship withdrawal . And if you don’t meet them, the funds you withdraw will be subject to income tax and a 10% early withdrawal penalty.

First-time homebuyers can
prequalify for a SoFi mortgage loan,
with as little as 3% down.


How Much of Your 401(k) Can Be Used For Home Purchase?

Generally, home buyers who want to use their 401(k) funds to finance a real estate transaction can borrow or withdraw up to 50% of their vested balance or a maximum of $50,000 — whichever is less. This limit typically applies to any 401(k) loan, not only a home purchase.

4 Potential Drawbacks of Using Your 401(k) to Buy a House

Taking money out of a 401(k) to buy a house may be allowed, but it’s not always recommended.

1. Withdrawal limits

Since there are limits on the amount you can withdraw or borrow for a home purchase, bear in mind that the total amount you can access may not cover all the costs (e.g., the down payment and closing costs) of the transaction. Be sure to run the numbers, to ensure that a 401(k) loan makes sense.

2. Lost contributions

Homebuyers who borrow from their 401(k) plans can’t make additional contributions to the accounts or receive matching contributions from their employers while paying off the loan. Depending on how much they were contributing, these home buyers could miss out on years of retirement contributions while they’re paying back the loan. That could take a substantial bite out of their overall retirement savings.

3. Automatic repayment terms

Generally, it’s not up to you to repay the loan; your company will deduct the loan payments automatically from your paycheck. This could be viewed as a convenience, since you don’t have to think about it, or as an inconvenience, as it lowers your take-home pay.

4. Loan terms change if you leave your job.

Finally, if an individual borrows from their 401(k) to purchase a home and leaves employment at their company (whether voluntarily or via layoff), the loan balance may be deducted from their remaining 401(k) funds in what’s called an offset. An offset is then treated like an early withdrawal, and potentially subject to taxes and a 10% penalty if the borrower is under 59 ½.

As an example: Derek is 35 and has $100,000 in his 401(k) and borrows $30,000 for a home purchase. He pays back $5,000 including interest, but still owes $25,000 when he takes another job. The remaining $25,000 would be deducted from his 401(k) as an offset, leaving $75,000 in the 401(k) or rollover IRA. Worse, the $25,000 would be treated by the IRS as an early withdrawal or distribution, and Derek would owe taxes, plus a 10% penalty ($2,500).

Terms may vary depending on the terms of your loan and the plan rules.


💡 Quick Tip: Before opening an investment account, know your investment objectives, time horizon, and risk tolerance. These fundamentals will help keep your strategy on track and with the aim of meeting your goals.

Pros and Cons of Using a 401(k) to Buy a House

Here are the pros and cons of using a 401(k) to buy a home, at a glance:

Pros of Using a 401(k) to Buy a House

Cons of Using a 401(k) to Buy a House

Individuals may be able to purchase a home that they might otherwise not be able to afford. Individuals can’t make regular contributions to their 401(k) while making loan payments.
When using a 401(k) loan, individuals are borrowing money from themselves, so they don’t owe interest to a bank or other institution. Borrowed or withdrawn funds aren’t growing inside the 401(k) account, potentially derailing an individual’s retirement savings.
Interest rates are generally low. If a person doesn’t qualify for a hardship withdrawal and they’re under age 59 ½, withdrawals would be subject to income tax and a 10% early withdrawal penalty.
You don’t have to meet any credit requirements. If a person leaves their job before the loan is repaid, the balance owed could be deducted from the remainder of their 401(k) funds as an offset. For those under 59 ½, the amount of the offset would be considered a distribution and the borrower would potentially owe taxes and a 10% penalty.

What are the Rules & Penalties for Using 401(k) Funds to Buy a House?

Here’s a side-by-side look at some key differences between taking out a 401(k) loan and withdrawing funds from a 401(k).

401(k) loans

401(k) withdrawals

•   Must be repaid with interest in a certain period of time — usually 5 years.

•   Qualified loans are penalty free and tax free, unless the borrower defaults or leaves their job before closing the loan.

•   The maximum loan amount is 50% of the vested account balance, or $50,000, whichever is less. (For accounts with a vested account balance of less than $10,000, the maximum loan amount is $10,000.)

•   Interest accrued on the loan goes back into the 401(k), so the borrower is basically paying interest back to themselves. The interest is also tax-deferred until retirement.

•   If the borrower doesn’t repay the loan on time, the loan is treated as a regular distribution (a.k.a. withdrawal) and subject to taxes and an early withdrawal penalty of 10%.

•   Do not have to be repaid.

•   Usually allowed only in the case of “financial hardship,” which can include medical expenses, funeral expenses, and primary home-buying expenses, if the individual meets strict IRS criteria for “hardship.”

◦  Subject to income tax and a 10% early withdrawal penalty for people under age 59 ½.

•   One can only withdraw enough to cover the immediate expense (a down payment, for example, not future monthly mortgage payments), with a limit of 50% of the vested balance or $50,000—whichever is less

•   You can only withdraw enough to cover the immediate expense (a down payment, for example, not future mortgage payments), with a limit of 50% of the vested balance or $50,000 — whichever is less.

What are the Alternatives to Using a 401(k) to Buy a House?

For some first-time homebuyers, there may be other, more attractive options for securing a down payment than taking money out of a 401(k) to buy a house. Here are a few of the alternatives.

Withdrawing Money from a Roth IRA

Using a Roth IRA to help buy a first home can be a smart alternative to borrowing from a 401(k) that might be beneficial for some home buyers. Unlike 401(k)s, Roth IRA contributions are made with after-tax dollars.

Contributions can be withdrawn at any time, tax free; earnings can be withdrawn without a penalty at age 59 ½ or older, as long as you’ve held the account for at least five years.

If you’re under 59 ½ or don’t meet the five-year criteria, some exceptions may apply for a first-time home purchase.

•  After the account has been open for five years, Roth IRA account holders who are buying their first home are allowed to withdraw up to $10,000 in investment earnings with no taxes or penalties. (Meaning a person could withdraw the amount of their total contribution plus up to $10,000 in investment earnings.) The $10,000 is a lifetime limit.

•  Roth IRA funds can be used to help with the purchase of a first home not only for the account holders themselves, but for their children, parents, or grandchildren.
One important requirement to note is that time is of the essence when using a Roth IRA to purchase a first home: The funds have to be used within 120 days of the withdrawal.

💡 Quick Tip: How much does it cost to set up an IRA? Often there are no fees to open an IRA, but you typically pay investment costs for the securities in your portfolio.

Low- and No-Down-Payment Home Loans

There are certain low- and no-down-payment home loans that homebuyers may qualify for that they can use instead of using a 401(k) for a first time home purchase. This could allow them to secure the down payment for a first home without tapping into their retirement savings.

•  FHA loans are insured by the Federal Housing Administration and allow home buyers to borrow with few requirements. Home buyers with a credit score lower than 580 qualify for a loan with 10% down, and those with credit scores higher than 580 can get a loan with as little as 3.5% down.

•  Conventional 97 loans are Fannie Mae-backed mortgages that allow a loan-to-value ratio of up to 97% of the cost of the loan. In other words, the home buyer could purchase a house for $400,000 and borrow up to $388,000, leaving only a down payment requirement of 3%, or $12,000, to purchase the house.

•  VA loans are available for U.S. veterans, active duty members, and surviving spouses, and they require no down payment or monthly mortgage insurance payment. They’re provided by private lenders and banks and guaranteed by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs.

•  USDA loans are a type of home buyer assistance program offered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to buy or possibly build a home in designated rural areas with an up-front guarantee fee and annual fee. Borrowers who qualify for USDA loans require no down payment and receive a fixed interest rate for the lifetime of the loan. Eligibility requirements are based on income, and vary by region.

Other Types of Down Payment Assistance

For home buyers who are ineligible for no-down payment loans, there are a few more alternatives instead of using 401(k) funds:

•  Down Payment Assistance (DAP) programs offer eligible borrowers financial assistance in paying the required down payment and closing costs associated with purchasing a home. They come in the form of grants and second mortgages, are available nationwide, can be interest-free, and sometimes have lower rates than the initial mortgage loan.

•  Certain mortgage lenders provide financial assistance by offering credits to cover all or some of the closing costs and down payment.

•  Gifted money from friends or family members can be used to cover a down payment or closing costs on certain home loans.

The Takeaway

Generally speaking, a 401(k) can be used to buy a house, either by taking out a 401(k) loan and repaying it with interest, or by making a 401(k) withdrawal (which is subject to income tax and a 10% withdrawal fee for people under age 59 ½).

However, using a 401(k) for a first-time home purchase is usually not advisable. Both qualified loans and withdrawals have some potential drawbacks — primarily the possibility of owing taxes and a penalty under certain conditions. Fortunately, there are other options. Certain Roth IRA withdrawals can be made tax and penalty free. Qualified homebuyers can also seek financial help from down payment assistance programs and other low- or no-interest plans.

As you weigh your choices, it helps to know where your retirement stands. Many people lose track of retirement accounts when they change jobs. To help manage your retirement funds, consider doing a 401(k) rollover. That’s when you move funds from an old 401(k) to an IRA.

Ready to invest for your retirement? It’s easy to get started when you open a traditional or Roth IRA with SoFi. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

Easily manage your retirement savings with a SoFi IRA.


SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Third-Party Brand Mentions: No brands, products, or companies mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third-party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

SoFi Mortgages
Terms, conditions, and state restrictions apply. Not all products are available in all states. See SoFi.com/eligibility for more information.


SoFi Loan Products
SoFi loans are originated by SoFi Bank, N.A., NMLS #696891 (Member FDIC). For additional product-specific legal and licensing information, see SoFi.com/legal. Equal Housing Lender.

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