Income Driven Repayment Plans and Student Loans

When it’s time to start repaying your federal student loans, your options can be confusing. It’s not as simple as sending your loan servicer a universally fixed payment or paying whatever you think you can afford. How much you owe each month can vary dramatically depending on how you choose to repay your loans.

The government currently offers eight repayment plans that let you knock out your student loans in as little as 10 years or as many as 30 years. Five of the options take into account how much money you make. Income-driven repayment plans are geared toward making the process affordable for everyone, but each is slightly different.

Choosing the right plan depends on many factors, such as the types of student loans you have, when you took them out, and how much you are making. You can switch plans anytime over the life of your student loans as your circumstances and income change.

Income-driven repayment plans may lower your monthly payment, which can be a lifesaver. But keep in mind that if you lower your monthly payment you might be done by extending the length of the loan. If that is the case, you’re also likely to pay more overall, because the interest adds up over a longer period.

Here’s a roadmap to understanding income-driven repayment and which plan is right for you.

What is an income-driven repayment plan?

An income-driven repayment plan makes your monthly student loan payments affordable by tying them to how much money you earn. These types of student loan repayment plans allow you to take more time repaying your loans than most plans that aren’t tied to your income. Most of them forgive the remainder of your student loans as long as you make the required payments for 20 to 25 years (but keep in mind you may have to pay taxes on the forgiven amount).

Your monthly payment under each plan will change each year depending on your situation. Four of the income-driven plans calculate your monthly student loan payment based on your discretionary income , which is defined as the difference between your annual income and either 100% or 150% of the poverty line .

Your monthly payment is recalculated every year based on your current income, family size, and in one case, the amount of your student loans. (There’s also an income-sensitive repayment plan which bases your payment on gross annual income.) You can figure out how much you’d pay under each plan on the Department of Education’s website .

Types of Income Driven Repayment Plans

Here are five income-based repayment plans that you can choose from:

Revised Pay As You Earn Repayment Plan (REPAYE)

● Your monthly payment is generally 10% of your discretionary income and is recalculated each year.

● Any remaining student loan balance will be forgiven in 20 or 25 years.

● This applies to Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans, Direct PLUS Loans to students, and Direct Consolidation Loans, that don’t include Direct PLUS Loans (Direct or FFEL) taken out by parents.

Pay As You Earn Repayment Plan (PAYE)

● Your monthly payment is generally up to 10% of your discretionary income, but never more that the 10 year Standard Repayment Plan amount, and is recalculated each year.

● Any remaining student loan balance will be forgiven in 20 years.

● This applies to Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans, Direct PLUS Loans to students and Direct Consolidation Loans that don’t include Direct PLUS Loans (Direct or FFEL) taken out by parents.

Income-Based Repayment Plan (IBR)

● Your monthly payment is generally 10% or 15% of your discretionary income, depending on when you became a borrower, but never more that the 10 year Standard Repayment Plan amount. The amount is recalculated each year.

● Any remaining student loan balance will be forgiven in 20 or 25 years.

● This applies to Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans, all PLUS Loans to students, Subsidized and Unsubsidized Federal Stafford Loans, and Consolidation Loans (Direct or FFEL) that don’t include Direct PLUS Loans take out by parents.

Income-Contingent Repayment Plan (ICR)

● Your monthly payment is whichever is less: 20% of discretionary income or the amount you would pay if you spread your payment evenly over 12 years, adjusted based on income and is recalculated each year.

● Any remaining student loan balance will be forgiven in 25 years.

● This applies to Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans, Direct PLUS Loans to students, and Direct Consolidation Loans.

● This is the only income-based repayment option for parents who took out Direct PLUS loans. They can access this plan by consolidating them into a Direct Consolidation Loan.

Income-Sensitive Repayment Plan

● Your monthly payment is based on your annual income, with the formula varying depending on your lender.

● You have 10 years to repay the loan.

● This applies to Subsidized and Unsubsidized Stafford Loans, FFEL PLUS Loans, and FFEL Consolidation Loans

How to Qualify for Income-driven Repayment

You’re not eligible for an income-driven repayment plan if you’ve defaulted on your student loan. (If you’re in that situation, there are options for getting out of default.

Anyone who has taken out eligible federal student loans can opt in to the REPAYE and ICR plans. To be eligible for the PAYE plan there are additional requirements to qualify. First, you need to be a ‘new borrower’ as of Oct. 1, 2007 and have received a loan disbursement on or after Oct. 1, 2011 You are considered a new borrower if you had no outstanding balance on a Direct Loan or FFEL Program loan on or after Oct. 1, 2007.

In addition, you can only qualify for the PAYE and IBR plans if your monthly payment is lower than what you would pay under the Standard Repayment Plan, which spreads your balance over 10 years. That means you’re generally eligible if your student loan balance represents a major chunk of your annual income or exceeds it.

What student loan repayment options exist besides income-driven repayment?

If you work in public service, you qualify for an even better deal: Public Service Loan Forgiveness . Under the program, you need to make 120 qualifying monthly payments under an income-driven repayment plan, working for a qualified employer and your remaining balance is eligible to be forgiven.

Related: 20 Year Student Loan Refinance vs Income-Driven Repayment

The payments don’t have to be consecutive, but if they are, you could be free of your student loans in 10 years. Some eligible employers include various levels of government, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, even an organization that provides certain public services, such as law enforcement, public interest legal services, the military, public health, and more.

If you’re not in public service and an income-driven repayment isn’t right for you, that doesn’t mean you’re stuck with impossibly high payments. One option is to choose the Extended Repayment Plan, which lets you spread your student loans over 25 years and pay a fixed or graduated amount each month.

A second option to consider if you’re having trouble paying your student loans because of a temporary situation (say you went back to school or can’t find a job), is applying for deferment or forbearance . These are short-term solutions may reduce your student loan payments for a limited time.

Another option is consolidating your student loans. Consolidation may give you more time to repay your student loans or lower your interest rate.

A Direct Consolidation Loan from the federal government can also give you access to income-driven repayment programs that you might not have otherwise qualified for based on the student loan you had. (Keep in mind that consolidating your student loans may force you to give up credits you’ve earned toward loan forgiveness.)

Another potential way to save money is student loan refinancing. A private lender may help consolidate both federal and Private student loans to provide a new interest rate based on your credit and current finances. That could substantially reduce the interest you pay on your student loans, but it disqualifies you from federal student loan benefits, such as income-driven repayment and public service forgiveness plans.

Learn more about student loan refinancing with SoFi today!

Notice: SoFi refinance loans are private loans and do not have the same repayment options that the federal loan program offers such as Income Based Repayment or Income Contingent Repayment or PAYE. SoFi always recommends that you consult a qualified financial advisor to discuss what is best for your unique situation.

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The Truth About Guaranteed Personal Loans

Many lenders—including both online lenders and brick-and-mortar banks—advertise guaranteed-approval personal loans. Also known as payday loans, guaranteed personal loans are usually secured by your paycheck. Basically, lenders use this type of loan to approve anyone, regardless of his or her credit score. Some lenders will offer cash on the same day that you apply for the guaranteed personal loan, even without checking your credit.

These offers can sound appealing, especially if you have shaky credit, don’t have savings to fall back on, or need money immediately for a financial emergency. But unfortunately, guaranteed-approval personal loans usually come with a catch. Often the only sure thing with a guaranteed personal loan is that you are more likely to owe more than you bargained for down the line. They usually come with high interest rates, among other extremely unfavorable terms.

It may feel like taking out a guaranteed personal loan is your only choice, but you have other options. Consider asking family or friends for help, requesting an advance from your employer, or applying for emergency help from a local community organization. If those options aren’t available to you, try applying for an unsecured personal loan.

Lenders offering unsecured personal loans won’t guarantee your approval, but many, including SoFi, look at more than just your credit score to determine your eligibility and you may be surprised to find that you still qualify.

Further, many online lenders are trying to make the process of getting funded for unsecured personal loans quicker as well. If you do, taking out an unsecured personal loan can be a safer bet for getting the cash you need now without paying dearly for it later.

The Drawbacks of Guaranteed Personal Loans

Guaranteed-approval personal loans may indeed get you money fast, but we all know there’s no such thing as a free lunch. The repayment terms you may be stuck with will often be extremely disadvantageous, even predatory.

For example, lenders who offer guaranteed loans could ask you to repay the debt in a matter of weeks. If your finances don’t improve and you can’t pay back the loan, your debt could grow exponentially. Guaranteed personal loans might even charge the equivalent of 400% interest . So if you’re already having a tough time financially, taking out a payday loan can be on slippery slope.

Unsecured personal loans, on the other hand, aren’t secured by personal assets to recover in case of default, which is why lenders are more careful about who they lend to.

Why an Unsecured Personal Loan Might Cost Less

The easy money that comes with a guaranteed-approval personal loan can bear a high cost. When you take out a payday loan, you might end up paying $10 to $30 for every $100 borrowed. That means if you borrow $300, you could have to pay back up to $390 in a short period of time. And if you don’t pay the loan off completely, you could face additional fees.

An unsecured personal loan is not guaranteed-approval, but it could cost you less in the long run. Unsecured personal loan rates usually aren’t as low as interest rates on some student loans or mortgages, but they could still be lower than rates associated with payday loans.

Furthermore, taking out an unsecured personal loan can come with a more reasonable repayment timeline that could help prevent you from falling into default or mounting high-interest debt.

What does SoFi consider when issuing personal loans?

SoFi offers unsecured personal loans from $5,000 to $100,000 with low fixed interest rates and flexible repayment terms. You won’t have guaranteed approval, but SoFi takes a number of factors into account to make sure all applications are fairly considered.

SoFi looks not just at your credit score but also at your financial history, your monthly income and expenses, your career experience, and your current employment. If you qualify, a personal loan can be a more responsible and less costly way to deal with a financial emergency.

Need money fast but don’t want to fall into a high-interest debt trap? See if you qualify for a personal loan with SoFi.

SoFi Lending Corp. or an affiliate is licensed by the Department of Financial Protection and Innovation under the California Financing Law, license number 6054612.
The information and analysis provided through hyperlinks to third party websites, while believed to be accurate, cannot be guaranteed by SoFi. Links are provided for informational purposes and should not be viewed as an endorsement.


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Prepayment Penalty: When Paying Off a Loan Early Can Cost You

If you recently got a bonus or just sold off the antique nutcracker collection you inherited from your Uncle Leo, you might consider putting that extra cash toward paying off your loans or getting ahead on your mortgage. After all, one frequently given nugget of financial wisdom is to use unexpected windfalls to pay down your debt. But what happens when paying down your loans comes with a prepayment penalty?

Loan prepayment penalties are fees lenders might include in their terms to ensure you pay a certain amount of interest on your loan before paying it off. It might sound crazy, but making extra payments or paying your loan off early can actually cost you more because of loan prepayment penalties.

The best way to avoid prepayment fees, of course, is to choose a personal loan or mortgage loan without prepayment penalties. If you’re stuck with a prepayment penalty on your loan, however, all is not lost. There are ways to avoid paying loan prepayment penalties. Here’s what you need to know in order to avoid prepayment penalty fees:

What is a loan prepayment penalty?

A loan prepayment penalty is an extra fee that allows lenders to charge you a fee for paying off the loan before the end of the term. The term of your loan is the repayment time period that you and your lender agreed on when you applied for the loan.

Personal Loan Prepayment Penalties

For example, if you take out a $6,000 personal loan to turn your guest room into a pet portrait studio and agree to pay your lender back $150 per month for five years, the term of that loan is five years. Although your loan term says it can’t take you more than five years to pay it off, some lenders also require that you don’t pay it off in less than five years.

The lender makes money off the monthly interest you pay on your loan, and if you pay off your loan early, the lender doesn’t make as much money. Loan prepayment penalties allow the lender to recoup the money they lose when you pay your loan off early.

Mortgage Loan Prepayment Penalties

When it comes to mortgages, things get a little trickier. For loans that originated after 2014, there are restrictions on when a lender can use prepayment penalties, which has made the penalties less common on mortgages. If you took out a mortgage before 2014, however, your mortgage may be subject to loan prepayment penalties. If you’re not sure if your mortgage has a prepayment penalty, check your origination paperwork or call your lender.

How much are loan prepayment penalties?

The cost of the prepayment penalty can vary widely depending on whether you took out a small personal loan or a substantial mortgage, and how your lender calculates the penalty. Lenders have different ways to determine how much of a prepayment penalty to charge. It behooves you to figure out exactly what your prepayment fee will be, because it can help you determine whether the penalty will outweigh the benefits of paying your loan off early. Here’s how the penalty fee might be calculated:

1. Interest Costs. If your loan charges a prepayment penalty based on interest, the lender is basing the fee on the interest you would have paid over the total term. To take our example from above, if you have a $6,000 loan with a five-year term, and want to pay the loan off in full after only four years, the lender may try to charge you 12 months’ worth of interest as a penalty.

2. Percentage of balance. Some lenders use a percentage of the amount left on your loan to determine your penalty fee. This is a common way to calculate prepayment penalty fees on mortgages. For example, if you buy a house for $500,000 and want to pay off the remaining balance six months after purchase, your lender might require that you pay a percentage of your remaining balance as a penalty.

3. Flat fee. Some lenders also simply have a flat fee as a prepayment penalty. This means that no matter how early you pay your loan back, you’ll have to pay a previously-agreed-to penalty fee.

How can you avoid prepayment penalties?

Trying to avoid prepayment penalties can seem like an exercise in futility, but it is possible. The easiest way to avoid them is to take out a loan or mortgage without prepayment penalties. If that is not possible, you still have options.

First, you can stick to the loan terms you agreed to. It might feel like you’re letting the lender win by making monthly payments for the full term of your loan, but it ensures you avoid penalty fees.

You can also take a look at your loan origination paperwork to see if it allows for a partial payoff without penalty. If it does, you might be able to prepay on a portion of your loan each year, which allows you to get out of debt sooner without requiring you to pay a penalty fee. For example, some mortgages allow larger payments of up to 20% of the purchase price once a year—without charging a prepayment penalty. This means that while you might not be able to pay off the full mortgage, you could pay up to 20% of the purchase price each year without triggering a penalty.

Finally, some lenders shift their prepayment penalty terms over the life of your loan. This means that as you get closer to the end of your original loan term, you might face less harsh penalty fees, or no fees at all. If that’s the case, it might make sense to sit on Uncle Leo’s nutcracker fortune for a year or two until the prepayment penalties no longer apply.

If you’re looking for a loan or mortgage, remember that there are lenders like SoFi that don’t impose prepayment penalties. With no prepayment penalties, you can use an unexpected cash windfall to pay down your debt fast without worrying about fees.

If you’re looking for a loan or mortgage with no prepayment penalties, check out SoFi personal loans and mortgages today.

SoFi Mortgages not available in all states. Products and terms may vary from those advertised on this site. See for details.

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A How to-Guide on Avoiding the Most Common Credit Card Fees

There are few annoyances in this world that compare to unexpected bank fees, and credit card fees are some of the most frustrating. Here’s a not-so-fun fact: The average credit card charges six different types of fees —some cards have as few as one fee, others charges as many as 12. *Takes deep sip of wine.*

While smart use of a credit card may allow you to earn rewards and build a credit history, there can be a sinister side to some credit cards. The average American carries an approximate balance of $6,354 on multiple credit cards . And getting out of credit card debt can be particularly challenging, especially if your credit cards have high interest fees.

Breaking Down the 6 Main Credit Card Fees

Can you name six different types of credit card fees off the top of your head? It’s okay, almost no one can, because it’s pretty crazy that, on average, credit cards ding you in six-plus ways. Still, the best way to sidestep fees is to know what they are. Sounds obvious, but understanding what types of behaviors to avoid is your primary defense in the battle against fees. Here’s a summary of the most common credit card fees, and a few tips on how to avoid them.

1. Annual Fees

An annual fee is the yearly price you pay to use a credit card. Not all credit cards have annual fees, but most reward-heavy and premium cards do. It’s not inherently bad to pay an annual fee on a credit card, but it does require busting out a calculator and doing some math. To justify paying an annual credit card fee, you should earn enough in rewards to cover the fee and then some.

To avoid it: Lots of cards have no annual fee or will waive an annual fee in the first year. When choosing a credit card, you’ll want to do some comparison shopping and annual fees should be something you pay close attention to. Ultimately, if you’re going to pay a fee for using a rewards card, you should make sure you’ll be cashing in on rewards you’ll actually use.

2. Late Payment Fees

Late payment fees are pretty self-explanatory. Basically, some banks will ding you if you miss a payment. As of 2017, late payment fees are capped at $38, so that’s about what you’ll pay, until the amount gets adjusted again for inflation.

To avoid it: Make your payments on time by setting a calendar reminder (or two). If you still can’t seem to remember your due date, set up an automatic payment for at least the minimum monthly payment. If you do miss a payment, call your credit card company and ask them to waive the fee. (If you’re a first-time offender, they might be amenable to it.)

3. Cash Advance Fees

When you use a credit card to withdraw cash from a bank or ATM, you will almost always be charged a cash advance fee. Cash advance fees generally range from 2% to 5% of the amount you withdraw or $10, whichever is higher. Though the rate is different per lender, credit card issuers are required to disclose the method they use to calculate your cash advance fee, so it is a good idea to research their method. Remember, the interest rate on a cash advance is likely to be higher than on “normal” credit card purchases, and interest accrues immediately.

Related: Consult our Credit Card Interest Rate Calculator to find out how much interest you are paying on your credit card debt.

To avoid it: Don’t use your credit card like a debit card. If you’re going to take out cash, it should be with a debit card. If you do have to take out a cash advance on your credit card, try to pay it back as soon as possible. And to avoid needing to take out a cash advance in the future, establish a cash emergency fund that’s easily accessible.

4. Balance Transfer Fees

When you transfer a credit card balance to a new card with a lower interest rate, the new credit card issuer may charge you a fee. The fee is usually 3% of the balance being transferred. Balance transfer cards usually offer 0% interest rates to new customers who want to transfer their credit card debt—so charging a fee allows them to make some money on the initial transaction.

This is another fee where the math could work in your favor. If you’re paying off your credit card debt, and you can transfer your debt to a card with 0% interest, that might be worth the small fee. However, that 0% interest deal might only last a certain amount of time—then a higher interest rate kicks in, and if so, make that part of your calculation.

To avoid it: If a balance transfer card would stress you out with its tight timeline before it’s interest rates change, you could instead consider taking out a personal loan to pay off your credit card debt. A personal loan will usually charge a lower interest rate than your credit card, but it will allow you pay off your debt on a timeline that’s right for you.

5. Foreign Transaction Fees

If you use a credit card while traveling outside of the country, you may be charged a foreign transaction fee of around 3%. Once very common, these fees are declining in popularity thanks to the rise of cards with no foreign transaction fees.

To avoid it: Choose a card that doesn’t charge foreign transaction fees. There are lots of options out there, it’s just a matter of shopping around. Airline cards don’t generally have foreign transaction fees, but plenty of other cards have eschewed these fees as well. If you aren’t ready for a new credit card, you may be able to use your debit card to take out cash once you get to your foreign destination without as many fees.

6. Finance Charges for Outstanding Balances

A finance charge includes not only interest but other charges as well, such as financial transaction fees for the cost of borrowing that you can be charged if you don’t pay your balance in full each month. Some folks consider finance charges separate from credit card fees, but it’s the largest expense associated with credit cards.

Simply put, the higher the annual percentage rate (APR) on your credit card, the more you’ll owe if you can’t pay your balance in full. The average APR on credit cards is just over 16% .

To avoid it: Pay off your credit card balance in full each month. If you’re unable to do that, pay as much as you can—every dollar counts.

If you’re currently chipping away at a balance, you may want to consider taking out a personal loan to pay off your credit card. A personal loan won’t have confusing fees and the payback schedule is straightforward.

Using a personal loan to pay off your debt is a particularly good idea if you can lower your rate of interest. Considering the 16% average APR on credit cards, you could save hundreds or thousands on interest if you opted for a loan with a lower interest rate.

Ready to see if a personal loan could get you out of credit card debt, while helping you save money on interest payments? Get a quote for a SoFi personal loan in as little as two minutes.

The information and analysis provided through hyperlinks to third party websites, while believed to be accurate, cannot be guaranteed by SoFi. Links are provided for informational purposes and should not be viewed as an endorsement.

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Saving Money with a Debt Consolidation Loan

You might be the kind of person who relishes spending money on exciting purchases, but can’t stand paying for boring things, like $8 shipping or a $25 oil change. And while it’s fair to be stingy sometimes, it doesn’t make sense to stress out about the inevitable costs of living while ignoring the far more important kind of spend: how much of your money goes toward accruing interest on debt.

The average American family has approximately $16,000 in credit card debt , and even more if you’re counting other types of consumer debt. If they’re paying the average credit card interest rate of 16.4% APR, they’re shelling out thousands of dollars per year on interest charges alone. That’s worth putting some thought and action toward. If you have credit card debt, use our Credit Card Interest Calculator to see how much interest you are paying.

With interest rates running into double digits, it’s no wonder people are seeking out ways to lessen interest payments. That’s where a debt consolidation loan comes in. Here’s how to determine if it is the right choice for you.

What are debt consolidation loans?

A debt consolidation loan is another name for a personal loan that you use to pay off other sources of debt, such as credit card debt. You’re basically just taking out a new loan out from a bank, credit union, or other non-bank lender and then using that money to pay off existing debt.

This is not the same as debt or credit relief, where a credit counselor helps you reduce interest rates or eliminate debt altogether. Credit relief programs can help you consolidate your debt, but they aren’t getting you a new loan—it’s only consolidation.

With a personal loan—also called a debt consolidation loan—you can merge multiple payments into one streamlined payment and potentially lower the combined interest rate. To put it in perspective, the average credit card interest rate is 16% APR.

Credit Card ConsolidationCredit Card Consolidation

When should you take out a personal loan for debt consolidation?

Most people considering a personal loan—also called a debt consolidation loan—feel overwhelmed by having multiple debt payments every month. A personal loan can lighten this load for two reasons. For one, you can lower the interest you pay on your debt, which means you could potentially save money on paying interest over time.

For two, it can also make it possible to opt for a shorter term, which could mean paying off your credit card debt years ahead of schedule. If it’s possible to get lower interest than you have on your current debt, or a shorter term on your debt to pay it off faster, a personal loan could be worth looking into.

On the other hand, you’ll also want to be careful about fees that might come with your new loan, separate from the interest rate you’ll pay. For example, some online lenders charge a fee just to take out a personal loan, and some don’t, so you’ll want to do your research.

How are personal loans used for debt consolidation?

Generally, people seeking debt consolidation loans have multiple sources of debt and want to accomplish two things: First, lower their interest rate—and thereby pay less each month—and reduce the amount they have to pay over the life of their loan. Second, they are trying to merge multiple loans into one, making it easier to keep track of monthly payments.

With a lower rate of interest, you are able to lower your monthly payment, shoring up money for other expenses or financial goals. You can also opt for a shorter repayment term, which shortens your payback period and gets you out of debt faster.

Who is eligible for a personal loan for debt consolidation?

If you have one or more sources of debt where the interest rate is higher than 10%, it’s worth exploring a personal loan. While there’s no guarantee that you’ll find a lower interest rate, you can’t know unless you get quotes from a few lenders. (And these days, it’s a pretty painless process. If it proves difficult, find yourself a different lender.)

Those with the best credit scores will typically qualify for the best rates on their new personal loans, but don’t let an average or even poor score keep you from requesting quotes. This is especially true if you have more than $10,000 in credit card debt and those cards charge exorbitant interest rates, which most of them do.

Also know that your credit score isn’t the only data point that’ll be considered in determining whether you qualify for a loan and at what rate. Potential lenders typically also consider employment history and salary, and other financial information they deem important in determining loan-worthiness.

A personal loan isn’t for everyone. If you’re doing it only for convenience and there isn’t a legitimate financial motive, it’s probably not worth it. Instead, focus that energy on paying back the money you owe as efficiently as possible.

While personal loans can be a great tool to reduce interest payments, it doesn’t reduce the actual debt you owe. If you’re looking to get out of debt so you can focus on other financial goals, but the interest rates on your debt are making it nearly impossible, a personal loan could be exactly what you need.


Considering a personal loan to consolidate your debt? Head to SoFi to see what rates you may qualify for.

The information and analysis provided through hyperlinks to third party websites, while believed to be accurate, cannot be guaranteed by SoFi. Links are provided for informational purposes and should not be viewed as an endorsement.
Disclaimer: Many factors affect your credit scores and the interest rates you may receive. SoFi is not a Credit Repair Organization as defined under federal or state law, including the Credit Repair Organizations Act. SoFi does not provide “credit repair” services or advice or assistance regarding “rebuilding” or “improving” your credit record, credit history, or credit rating. For details, see the FTC’s website on credit .


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