A Guide to Bitcoin ETFs

By Inyoung Hwang · March 17, 2022 · 7 minute read

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A Guide to Bitcoin ETFs

Bitcoin ETF are designed to track the price of Bitcoin. That means when the price of Bitcoin in U.S. dollars goes up, a Bitcoin ETF trading on the stock exchange should also go up, and vice versa.

Bitcoin ETFs have a much narrower focus than most other exchange-traded funds, which started out with the aim of giving investors broad exposure to the stock market.

In this article, we’ll discuss the benefits and risks of investing in a Bitcoin ETF and the future of Bitcoin ETFs.

What Are Bitcoin ETFs?

While traditional ETFs are a pool of different assets, such as stocks, bonds, commodities, or currencies, that are divided into shares, a spot market Bitcoin ETF would track the price of a fund’s Bitcoin holdings.

As of March 2022, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has yet to approve a spot market Bitcoin ETF product. That said, there are ETFs that track Bitcoin-exposed or Bitcoin-adjacent companies, as well as Bitcoin futures.

How Does a Bitcoin ETF Work?

The invention of Bitcoin created a new asset class, and many different types of cryptocurrencies have sprung up in the years since. Investors and ETF providers have been eager to introduce this new asset class to the stock market through ETFs.

But while many have tried, the vast majority have failed. Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss — famed for their dispute with Mark Zuckerberg over Facebook — tried in 2013 with a proposal that was eventually rejected by regulators four years later.

ETFs of any kind must be approved by the SEC before being listed on a U.S. stock exchange. In May 2021, SEC Chair Gary Gensler disappointed investors hopeful for a Bitcoin ETF approval by saying “there are many challenges and gaps for investor protection in (crypto) markets.”

Existing Bitcoin Funds

An application by the crypto investment firm Grayscale was also rejected, and the company eventually went on to launch a fund in the over-the-counter market, meaning it’s not listed on a stock exchange.

While there currently may not be any additional approved spot Bitcoin ETFs on the U.S. market, there are other ETFs out there that provide exposure to bitcoin-related securities such as stocks related to blockchain, the technology that underlies the bitcoin network. Bitcoin ETFs do exist on stock markets of other countries.

Could We See a US Bitcoin ETF Soon?

It doesn’t seem likely that the U.S. would soon see a U.S. Bitcoin ETF. In the past four months, the SEC denied spot market Bitcoin ETF applications from Fidelity, VanEck, investment manager NYDIG, and ETF provider Global X. In rejecting applications for Bitcoin ETFs, the SEC has repeatedly cited concerns over potential fraud and manipulation.

Pros & Cons of Bitcoin ETFs

There are a few reasons why an investor might choose to invest in a Bitcoin ETF rather than the cryptocurrency itself — and also some drawbacks to doing so that potential investors should be aware of.

Benefits of Bitcoin ETFs

Proponents of Bitcoin ETFs appreciate that they would give investors exposure to the complicated and volatile cryptocurrency market, without the need to personally hold actual crypto. Here are a few pros of Bitcoin ETFs.

Convenience & Ease

Buying a Bitcoin ETF requires little tech know-how beyond knowing how to use a computer, open a brokerage account, and place a buy order.

ETFs provide a seemingly easy way to profit from rising asset prices without having to actually own those assets. On the other hand, holding actual Bitcoin requires a somewhat advanced level of technical expertise.

Bitcoin can be confusing for less-than tech-savvy users. The process often involves setting up an account on a cryptocurrency exchange, most of which are largely unregulated. Buying an ETF negates the need for this step.

Safe Storage

An option for owning Bitcoin directly would be holding coins on an exchange. Some cryptocurrency exchanges might be trustworthy, but some have also had a controversial history of being hacked, stolen from, or defrauded. Even reliable exchanges open investors up to risk.

Securely storing cryptocurrencies — for example, storing the private keys to a Bitcoin wallet — is most often done by using either a paper wallet that has the keys written in the form of a QR code and a long string of random characters, or by using an external piece of hardware called a hardware wallet – like a Ledger wallet.

Social media and cryptocurrency forums are rife with horror stories about users who sent coins to the wrong address, misplaced their backup passphrase, forgot their PIN number, or experienced other sad scenarios that created a world of hurt for investors.

Recommended: How to Safely Send Bitcoin to Another Wallet

Less Counterparty Risk

Counterparty risk arises whenever a third party holds onto something for someone else. In certain situations, the third party’s interests might run contrary to that of the investor’s assets that they hold.

Over the years, some service providers have sprung up promising to securely hold coins for users. This may or may not be a desirable or promising solution, but even if it were suitable in all cases, there would still be risk.

At best, an unforeseen event like a bankruptcy or market disruption could cause a business to withhold customer funds for a period of time, making them inaccessible when people might need those assets most.

Risks of Bitcoin ETFs

The risks of a Bitcoin ETF come from both the traditional investment world and the world of cryptocurrency markets. There are a few considerations many investigators look at.

High Volatility

The volatility comes from the occasional wild swings experienced in the price of Bitcoin against most other currencies. A Bitcoin ETF, which is intended to mimic the price action of Bitcoin, should also experience similar price swings. This could scare investors that have a lower risk tolerance, enticing them to panic sell.

Fund Fees

One of the risks that comes from holding an ETF of any kind involves its expense ratio. This number refers to the amount of money a fund’s management charges in exchange for providing the opportunity for investors to invest in their fund.

If a fund comes with an expense ratio of 2%, for example, the fund management would take $2 out of a $100 investment each year. This figure is usually calculated after profits have been factored in, cutting into investors’ gains. In other words, Bitcoin ETFs may be expensive for investors to hold.

Fraud or Manipulation

Regulators have cited fraud and market manipulation as reasons for why they’re cautious about approving a spot market Bitcoin ETF. Such a Bitcoin ETF would give investors exposure to the digital coin, but they would not actually hold the asset, exposing the risk of fraud.

The Takeaway

For investors curious about the cryptocurrency market but not yet ready to take the plunge, a Bitcoin ETF may represent a more convenient, comfortable option. However, U.S. regulators haven’t approved a Bitcoin ETF because of concerns about the cryptocurrency’s volatility as well as the risk of fraud and manipulation.

If an investor is still eager to try their hand at buying cryptocurrencies, they can use SoFi Invest®, which offers Bitcoin and over two dozen other coins on a secure platform. Investors can also trade 24/7 and monitor their cryptocurrency holdings alongside investments in stocks, ETFs, and fractional shares.

Get started on SoFi Invest today.


Is there a Bitcoin ETF?

In the U.S., there are Bitcoin futures ETFs, which don’t invest directly in Bitcoin, but rather shorter-term, cash-settled contracts. In addition, there are ETFs that provide exposure to Bitcoin-related securities — such as stocks related to blockchain, the technology that underlies the Bitcoin network. While there are currently no U.S. Bitcoin spot ETFs, they do exist on stock markets in Canada and Europe.

What are the options for cryptocurrency ETFs?

Some options for cryptocurrency ETFs include Bitcoin futures ETFs and ETFs that track Bitcoin-exposed or Bitcoin-adjacent companies. In addition to crypto-related instruments, some investors might choose to invest in other crypto- and blockchain-related companies, including crypto exchanges and mining technology companies.

Where can crypto ETFs be bought?

Crypto ETFs can be bought and traded on the stock market, alongside other ETFs.

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