Is a Backdoor Roth IRA Right for You?

Backdoor Roth IRAs

Want to contribute to a Roth IRA, but have an income that exceeds the limits? There’s another option. It’s called a backdoor Roth IRA, and it’s a way of converting funds from a traditional IRA to a Roth.

A Roth IRA is an individual retirement account that may provide investors with a tax-free income once they reach retirement. With a Roth IRA, investors save after-tax dollars, and their money generally grows tax-free. Roth IRAs also provide additional flexibility for withdrawals — once the account has been open for five years, contributions can generally be withdrawn without penalty.

But there’s a catch: Investors can only contribute to a Roth IRA if their income falls below a specific limit. If your income is too high for a Roth, you may want to consider a backdoor Roth IRA.

Key Points

•   A backdoor Roth IRA allows high earners to contribute to a Roth IRA by converting funds from a traditional IRA.

•   This strategy involves paying income taxes on pre-tax contributions and earnings at conversion.

•   There are no income limits or caps on the amount that can be converted to a Roth IRA.

•   The process includes opening a traditional IRA, making non-deductible contributions, and then converting these to a Roth IRA.

•   Potential tax implications include moving into a higher tax bracket and owing taxes on pre-tax contributions and earnings.

What Is a Backdoor Roth IRA?

If you aren’t eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA outright because you make too much, you can do so through a technique called a “backdoor Roth IRA.” This strategy involves contributing money to a traditional IRA and then converting it to a Roth IRA.

The government allows individuals to do this as long as, when they convert the account, they pay income tax on any contributions they previously deducted and any profits made. Unlike a standard Roth IRA, there is no income limit for doing the Roth conversion, nor is there a ceiling to how much can be converted.

💡 Quick Tip: How much does it cost to open an IRA account? Often there are no fees to open an IRA, but you typically pay investment costs for the securities in your portfolio.

How Does a Backdoor IRA Work?

This is how a backdoor IRA typically works: An individual opens a traditional IRA and makes non-deductible contributions. They then convert the account into a Roth IRA. The strategy is generally most helpful to those who earn a higher salary and are otherwise ineligible to contribute to a Roth IRA.

Example Scenario

For instance, let’s say a 34-year-old individual whose tax filing status is single and who makes $150,000 a year wants to open a Roth IRA. Their income is too high for them to be eligible for a Roth directly (more on this below), but they can use the “backdoor IRA” strategy. In order to do this, the individual would open a traditional IRA and contribute non-deductible funds to it. They then convert that money to a Roth IRA.

Recommended: Traditional Roth vs. Roth IRA: How to Choose the Right Plan

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Income and Contribution Limits

In general, Roth IRAs have income limits. In 2024, a single person whose modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) is more than $161,000, or a married couple filing jointly with a MAGI more than $240,000, cannot contribute to a Roth IRA. For tax year 2023, a single filer whose MAGI is more than $153,000, or a married couple filing jointly with a MAGI over $228,000, cannot contribute to a Roth IRA.

There are also annual contribution limits for Roth IRAs. In 2024, an individual can contribute up to $7,000 in a Roth IRA (or up to $8,000 if they are 50 or older). For tax year 2023, an individual can contribute up to $6,500 in a Roth IRA (or up to $7,500 if they are 50 or older). Traditional IRAs have the same contribution limits as Roth IRAs.

How to Set Up and Execute a Backdoor Roth

Here’s how to initiate and complete a backdoor Roth IRA.

•   Open a Traditional IRA. You could do this with SoFi Invest®, for instance.

•   Make a non-deductible contribution to the Traditional IRA.

•   Open a Roth IRA, complete any paperwork that may be required for the conversion, and transfer the money into the Roth IRA.

Tax Impact of a Backdoor Roth

If you made non-deductible contributions to a traditional IRA that you then converted to a Roth IRA, you won’t owe taxes on the money because you’ve already paid taxes on it. However, if you made deductible contributions, you will need to pay taxes on the funds.

In addition, if some time elapsed between contributing to the traditional IRA and converting the money to a Roth IRA, and the contribution earned a profit, you will owe taxes on those earnings.

You might also owe state taxes on a Roth IRA conversion. Be sure to check the tax rules in your area.

Another thing to be aware of: A conversion can also move people into a higher tax bracket, so individuals may consider waiting to do a conversion when their income is lower than usual.

And finally, if an investor already has traditional IRAs, it may create a situation where the tax consequences outweigh the benefits. If an individual has money deducted in any IRA account, including SEP or SIMPLE IRAs, the government will assume a Roth conversion represents a portion or ratio of all the balances. For example, say the individual contributed $5,000 to an IRA that didn’t deduct and another $5,000 to an account that did deduct. If they converted $5,000 to a Roth IRA, the government would consider half of that conversion, or $2,500, taxable.

The tax rules involved with converting an IRA can be complicated. You may want to consult a tax professional.

💡 Quick Tip: Before opening an investment account, know your investment objectives, time horizon, and risk tolerance. These fundamentals will help keep your strategy on track and with the aim of meeting your goals.

Is a Backdoor Roth Right for Me?

It depends on your situation. Below are some of the benefits and downsides to a backdoor Roth IRA to help you determine if this strategy might be a good option for you.

Benefits

High earners who don’t qualify to contribute under current Roth IRA rules may opt for a backdoor Roth IRA.

As with a typical Roth IRA, a backdoor Roth may also be a good option when an investor expects their taxes to be lower now than in retirement. Investors who hope to avoid required minimum distributions (RMDs) when they reach age 73 might also consider doing a backdoor Roth.

Downsides

If an individual is eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA, it won’t make sense for them to do a backdoor conversion.

And because a conversion can also move people into a higher tax bracket, you may consider waiting to do a conversion in a year when your income is lower than usual.

For those individuals who already have traditional IRAs, the tax consequences of a backdoor Roth IRA might outweigh the benefits.

Finally, if you plan to use the converted funds within five years, a backdoor Roth may not be the best option. That’s because withdrawals before five years are subject to income tax and a 10% penalty.

Is a Backdoor Roth Still Allowed for 2023? For 2024?

Backdoor IRAs are still allowed for tax year 2023. And at this point, they are still allowed for 2024 as well.

There had been some discussion in previous years of possibly eliminating the backdoor Roth IRA, but as of yet, this has not happened.

The Takeaway

A backdoor Roth IRA may be worth considering if tax-free income during retirement is part of an investor’s financial plan, and the individual earns too much to contribute directly to a Roth.

In general, Roth IRAs may be a good option for younger investors who have low tax rates and people with a high income looking to reduce tax bills in retirement.

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FAQ

What are the rules of a backdoor Roth IRA?

The rules of a backdoor Roth IRA include paying taxes on any deductible contributions you make; paying any other taxes you may owe for the conversion, such as state taxes; and waiting five years before withdrawing any earnings from the Roth IRA to avoid paying a penalty.

Is it worth it to do a backdoor Roth IRA?

It depends on your specific situation. A backdoor Roth IRA may be beneficial if you earn too much to contribute to a Roth IRA. It may also be advantageous for those who expect to be in a higher tax bracket in retirement.

What is the 5-year rule for backdoor Roth IRA?

According to the 5-year rule, if you withdraw money from a Roth IRA before the account has been open for at least five years, you are typically subject to a 10% tax on those funds. The five year period begins in the tax year in which you made the backdoor Roth conversion. There are some possible exceptions to this rule, however, including being 59 ½ or older or disabled.

Do you get taxed twice on backdoor Roth?

No. You pay taxes once on a backdoor IRA — when you convert a traditional IRA with deductible contributions and any earnings to a Roth. When you withdraw money from your Roth in retirement, the withdrawals are tax-free because you’ve already paid the taxes.

Can you avoid taxes on a Roth backdoor?

There is no way to avoid paying taxes on a Roth backdoor. However, you may be able to reduce the amount of tax you owe by doing the conversion in a year in which your income is lower.

Can you convert more than $6,000 in a backdoor Roth?

There is no limit to the amount you can convert in a backdoor Roth IRA. The annual contribution limits for IRAs does not apply to conversions. But you may want to split your conversions over several years to help reduce your tax liability.

What time of year should you do a backdoor Roth?

There is no time limit on when you can do a backdoor Roth IRA. However, if you do a backdoor Roth earlier in the year, it could give you more time to come up with any money you need to pay in taxes.


Third-Party Brand Mentions: No brands, products, or companies mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third-party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.

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INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

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What Is the Arms Index (TRIN)? How to Use the Indicator

What Is the Arms Index (TRIN)? How to Use the Indicator

The Arms Index or Trading Index (TRIN) is a breadth indicator used to indicate when the stock market is overbought and oversold. In simpler terms, it measures how strong or weak the market is on any given day.

Technical analyst Richard W. Arms developed the Arms Index formula in 1967 as a tool for gauging market sentiment. Investors still use TRIN indicators to track volatility and price movements. By looking for upward or downward trends in the TRIN and comparing them to other technical indicators, investors can potentially identify buy or sell signals.

Key Points

•   The Arms Index, also known as TRIN, measures stock market strength or weakness.

•   It was developed by Richard W. Arms in 1967 to gauge market sentiment.

•   TRIN calculates by dividing the Advance/Decline ratio by the Advance/Decline volume ratio.

•   A TRIN value above 1.0 suggests a bearish market, while below 1.0 indicates bullish conditions.

•   Investors use TRIN alongside other indicators to identify potential buy or sell signals.

What Is the Arms Index (TRIN)?

The Arms Index, Trading Index or TRIN for short is a breadth oscillator used to identify pricing and value trends in the stock market. Specifically, the index looks at two things: Advance Decline ratio and Advance Decline volume ratio.

The former represents the number of advancing and declining stocks while the latter represents advancing and declining stock volume.

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The TRIN Formula

TRIN = (Advancing stocks/Declining stocks) / (Composite volume of advancing stocks/Composite volume of declining stocks)

In this formula:

•   Advancing stocks refers to the number stocks trading higher

•   Declining stocks refers to the number of stocks trading lower

•   Advancing volume is the total volume of all advancing stocks

•   Declining volume is the total volume of all declining stocks

Investors use moving averages to smooth out the data and understand the relationship between the supply and demand for stocks during a given time period. The Arms Index aims to highlight bearish or bullish trends based on the relationship between the number of stocks being traded and the volume.

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How to Calculate TRIN

To calculate TRIN, you’d simply apply the formula outlined earlier. Again, it looks like this:

TRIN = (Advancing stocks/Declining stocks) / (Composite volume of advancing stocks/Composite volume of declining stocks)

Here’s what calculating TRIN might look like in action:

•   Find AD ratio by dividing the number of advancing stocks by the number of declining stocks

•   Find AD volume ratio by dividing total advancing volume by total declining volume

•   Divide AD ratio by AD volume ratio

You’d perform these calculations over a set time period, recording each figure on a graph or chart as you go. For example, you might space the calculations out every few minutes, hourly or daily. You’d then connect each data point on your graph or chart to whether the TRIN is moving up or down.

Dive Deeper: How to Calculate AD Ratio

What Does TRIN Show You?

TRIN shows you the market’s volatility and the short-term direction of prices to help investors identify buying opportunities. When reading or interpreting TRIN data, you’re looking to see if it’s above 1.0 or below 1.0. This can tell you whether the market is bearish or bullish. A reading of exactly 1.0 is considered neutral.

For example, a reading below 1.0 is common when there are strong upward trends in price movements. Meanwhile, a reading above 1.0 is typical when there’s a strong downward trend. Here’s another way to think of it. When the reading is below 1.0 that means advancing stocks are driving volume but when it’s above 1.0, declining stocks are in the driver’s seat for generating volume.

You may also look at the direction TRIN is moving. A rising TRIN could indicate a weak market, while a falling TRIN may mean the market is getting stronger. Understanding how to read the data matters when determining whether the market is overbought or oversold at any given time.

Overbought

In stock trading, overbought means a stock is selling at a price above its intrinsic value. When the market is overbought, there’s generally a bullish attitude as investors keep buying in and driving up market capitalizations.

But a sell-off can happen if market sentiment turns negative. In that case, you get a reversal and prices begin to drop, potentially pushing market capitalizations down. Investors use the Arms Index or TRIN to spot this type of price movement trend and get ahead of a reversal before it happens.

Oversold

When an asset is oversold it means it’s trading below its intrinsic value. In other words, it’s trading for less than what it’s actually worth. This scenario can happen if an asset is undervalued for an extended period of time.

When investors assume the market is oversold, that can lead to an increase in buying activity. This, in turn, can drive stock prices up.

💡 Quick Tip: How to manage potential risk factors in a self-directed investment account? Doing your research and employing strategies like dollar-cost averaging and diversification may help mitigate financial risk when trading stocks.

Example of Using TRIN

If you wanted to apply the TRIN in real time, you could do that using stock charts that illustrate technical indicators. So, say you want to track the movements of the S&P 500 Index for a single day, looking at prices in five-minute intervals. You begin calculating TRIN at 10:00 am, at which time it’s 1.10. This sends a sell signal to the market and prices begin edging down.

An hour later, you see that TRIN has dropped to 0.85 sending a buy signal. At this point, prices begin to move upward again. By following TRIN throughout the day you could see whether the upward trend looks like it will continue or whether it will eventually reverse. If you’re following the rule of “buy low, sell high“, you might want to time trades to correlate with stock price movements based on the trends forecasted by the TRIN.

How Is TRIN Different Than TICK?

The TRIN measures the spread or gap between supply and demand in the markets. The Tick Index or Tick Indicator shows the number of stocks trading on an uptick minus the number of stocks trading on a downtick. This trend indicator measures all of the stocks that trade on an exchange such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) or Nasdaq.

Unlike Arms Index or TRIN, the Tick indicator does not factor in volumes. Instead, Tick index aims to pinpoint extreme buying or extreme selling on an intraday basis.

Is TRIN a Good Indicator?

The TRIN has both good points and bad points when used as an investment decision-making tool. No technical analysis indicator can yield precise answers when determining the best time to buy or sell.

It’s important to keep in mind that the Trading Index is just one indicator analysts use to evaluate the stock market and stock volatility. The TRIN is most helpful when used with other indicators in order to create a more comprehensive snapshot of the markets at a particular moment in time.

Pros of TRIN

The Arms Index or TRIN closely analyzes trends between advancing and declining assets. By comparing net advances to volume, it provides a picture of price movements. Volume can be a useful indicator in itself, as higher volumes can suggest more significant shifts in stock pricing.

The TRIN is forward-looking so it can be useful in forecasting which way the market will head next. By pointing out stocks that may be overbought or oversold, the indicator can provide investors with some direction when trying to buy the bottom or sell the top to maximize profits in the market.

Cons of TRIN

If the TRIN has one big flaw it’s that it may generate inaccurate readings because of the way the index accounts for volume. Specifically, you can run into problems when advancing volume falls short of expectations.

For example, say that on a given day the number of stocks advancing significantly outpaces the number of stocks declining. Meanwhile, the same trend happens with volumes, with advancing volume outstripping declining volume. When you calculate TRIN, the numbers could effectively cancel one another out, resulting in a neutral reading.

This can make it difficult to figure out if the market is trending bearish or bullish. For that reason, it may be helpful to apply a 10-day moving average (MA) to help even out the numbers and provide a more accurate picture of pricing trends.

How Investors Can Use TRIN

Technical investors can use the TRIN to analyze the market, decide whether to buy or sell, and when to make those trades to produce the best results. When using the index, you’re looking for clear markers of strength or weakness in the markets. By gauging overall market sentiment, it may become easier to make predictions about future prices.

The TRIN is, by nature, designed to monitor short-term trading activity so it may not work as well for spotting longer term trends. But you can use it to get a feel for whether the market is leaning more on the bullish or bearish side and how likely that trend is to either continue or reverse.

The Takeaway

The Arms Index or TRIN is an important concept to understand if you’re an active day trader using technical analysis. With technical analysis, you’re trying to find trends in the near term so that you can take action to capitalize them.

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Photo credit: iStock/Delmaine Donson


SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Investment Risk: Diversification can help reduce some investment risk. It cannot guarantee profit, or fully protect in a down market.

Claw Promotion: Customer must fund their Active Invest account with at least $25 within 30 days of opening the account. Probability of customer receiving $1,000 is 0.028%. See full terms and conditions.

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How to Calculate Portfolio Beta

Portfolio beta refers to a popular metric that investors use to measure a portfolio’s risk, or its sensitivity to price swings in the broader market. While past performance does not indicate future returns, knowing a portfolio’s beta can help investors understand the price variability of their stocks, or how much their holdings may move if there’s stock volatility or big gains in a benchmark index like the S&P 500.

Investors often consider beta a measure of systematic risk, or risk that stems from the entire market and that investors can not diversify away. Macro events such as interest-rate or economic changes often fall into the category of systematic risk, while idiosyncratic, stock-specific risk includes events like a change in company management, new competitors, changed regulation, or product recalls.

Key Points

•   Portfolio beta is a metric used to measure the sensitivity of a portfolio’s returns to market movements, indicating its systematic risk.

•   To calculate the beta of a portfolio, the beta of each stock is multiplied by its proportional value in the portfolio, and these products are then summed.

•   Stocks with a beta greater than one are more volatile than the market, while those with a beta less than one are less volatile.

•   Negative beta values indicate an inverse relationship to the market, which can be characteristic of assets like gold or defensive stocks.

•   Understanding a portfolio’s beta is crucial for investors aiming to manage risk in alignment with their investment strategy and market outlook.

How to Calculate Beta of a Portfolio

The Beta of a portfolio formula requires relatively simple math, as long as investors know the Beta for each stock that they hold and the portion of your portfolio that each stock comprises.

Here are the steps you’d follow to calculate the Beta of a hypothetical portfolio:

1.    Calculate the total value of each stock in the portfolio by multiplying the number of shares that you own of the stock by the price of its shares:

Stock ABB: 500 shares X $20 a share each = $10,000.

2.    Figure out what proportion each stock in their portfolio represents by dividing the stock’s total value by the portfolio’s total value:

Stock ABB’s total value of $10,000/Portfolio’s total value of $80,000 = 0.125.

3.    Multiply each stock’s fractional share by its Beta. This will calculate the stock’s weighted beta:

Stock ABB’s beta of 1.2 X its fractional portfolio of 0.125 = 0.15.

4.    Add up the individual weighted betas.

Here is the whole hypothetical portfolio with a total beta of 1.22, benchmarked to the S&P 500. That means when the index moves 1%, this portfolio as a whole is 22% more risky than the index.

Stock

Value

Portfolio Share

Stock Beta Weighted Beta
ABB $10,000 0.125 1.20 0.15
CDD $30,000 0.375 0.85 0.319
EFF $15,000 0.1875 1.65 0.309
GHH $25,000 0.3125 1.42 0.44375
Sum 1.22

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4 Ways to Characterize Beta

Investors always measure a portfolio’s beta against a benchmark index, which they give a value of 1. Stocks that have a beta higher than one are more volatile than the overall market, and those with a beta of less than one are less volatile than the overall market.

Understanding beta is part of fundamental stock analysis. Once you know the beta of your portfolio, you can make changes in order to increase or decrease its risk based on your overall investment strategy by changing your asset allocation.

There are four ways to characterize beta:

High Beta

A high beta stock — one that tends to rise and fall along with the market often — has a value of greater than 1. So if a stock has a beta of 1.2 and is benchmarked to the S&P 500, it is 20% more volatile than the broader measure.

If the S&P 500 rises or falls 10%, then the stock would conversely rise or fall 12%. The same would be true for portfolio beta. While there’s more downside risk with high-beta stocks, they can also generate bigger returns when the market rallies – a principle of Modern Portfolio Theory.

Low Beta

A low beta stock with a beta of 0.5 would be half as volatile as the market. So if the S&P 500 moved 1%, the stock would post a 0.5% swing. Such a stock may have less volatility, but it also may have less potential to post large gains as well.

Still, investors often prefer lower volatility securities. Low beta investment strategies have shown strong risk-adjusted returns over time, too.

Negative Beta

Stocks or portfolios with a negative beta value inversely correlate with the rest of the market. So when the S&P 500 rises, shares of these companies would go down or vice versa.

Gold, for instance, often moves in the opposite direction as stocks, since investors tend to turn to the metal as a haven during stock volatility. Therefore, a portfolio of gold-mining companies could have a negative beta.

So-called defensive stocks like utility companies also sometimes have negative beta, as investors buy their shares when seeking assets less tied to the health of the economy. A downside to negative beta is that expected returns on negative beta securities tend to be weak – even less than the risk-free interest rate.

Zero Beta

A stock or portfolio can also have a beta of zero, which means it’s uncorrelated with the market. Some hedge funds seek a market-neutral strategy. Being market-neutral means attempting to perform completely indifferent to how an index like the S&P 500 behaves.

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How to Calculate an Individual Stock’s Beta

For investors, calculating the beta of all their stock holdings can be time consuming, and typically, financial data or brokerage firms offer beta values for stocks.

But if you wanted to calculate beta for an individual stock, you’d divide a measure of a stock’s returns relative to the broader market over a given time frame by a measure of the market’s return by its mean, also over a specific time frame. Here is the formula:

Beta = covariance/variance

Covariance is a measure of a security’s returns relative to the market’s returns.

Variance is a measure of the market’s return relative to its mean or average.

Alpha vs Beta vs Smart Beta

Beta is one of the Option Greeks, terminology frequently used by traders to refer to characteristics of specific securities or derivatives in the market. Another commonly used Greek term is Alpha. While beta refers to an asset’s volatility relative to the broader market, Alpha is a measure of outperformance relative to the rest of the market.

Beta also comes up a lot in the exchange-traded fund or ETF industry. Smart Beta ETFs are funds that incorporate rules- or factor-based strategies.

What Impacts Beta?

A variety of factors impact an asset’s beta. In general, stocks seen as riskier than average typically feature higher betas. Stock-specific factors such as debt levels, aggressive management, bold projects, volatile cash flows, and even ESG factors can influence a stock’s idiosyncratic risk. Higher business risk, while stock-specific, can lead to a more volatile stock price than the overall market, hence a higher beta.

Higher betas often appear in particular sectors. There are even investment fund strategies that play on beta – you can buy funds that exclusively own high beta or low beta stocks. A stock’s sector, industry, geographic location, and market cap size all impact a stock’s volatility and beta.

Cyclical and growth sectors like energy, industrials, information technology, and consumer discretionary often feature high betas. Utilities, consumer staples, real estate, and much of the healthcare sector typically have low beta.

Small caps and stocks domiciled in emerging-market economies also often have a higher beta (compared to the U.S. large-cap S&P 500).

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Important Things to Know About Beta

1.    A stock’s beta may change over time. Because beta relies on historical price data, it is subject to change.

2.    Beta is not a complete measure of risk. It can be a useful way for investors to estimate short-term risk but it’s less helpful when it comes to considering a long-term investment because the macroeconomic environment and company’s fundamentals may change. In some cases, beta is not the best measure of a stock or a portfolio’s risk.

3.    Beta is an input when investors are using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) — a way to measure the expected return of assets taking into account systematic risk. It’s a method that also looks at the cost of capital for investors.

4.    The estimated beta of a stock will be less helpful for companies that do not trade as frequently. Thin liquidity for a stock may bias its beta value since there is less robust historical price data.

5.    Beta does not offer a complete picture of a stock’s risk profile as it’s linked to systematic risk. Investors must also consider stock-specific risk when managing their portfolios.

The Takeaway

As discussed, beta is a popular metric that investors use to measure a portfolio’s risk, or its sensitivity to price swings in the broader market. Knowing stock holdings’ betas can be important information when you’re building your portfolios.

You can calculate their portfolio beta using simple math as long as you’re able to obtain the individual betas for your stock holdings. While beta is a helpful tool to try to gauge potential volatility in a portfolio, its reliance on historical data makes it limited in measuring the complete risk profile of an asset or portfolio.

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FAQ

What is a good beta for a portfolio?

In a general sense, a good beta for a portfolio would be 1. That’s only a general guideline or rule of thumb, however, as it means that a portfolio’s value is roughly as volatile as the market overall.

What does a beta of 1.3 mean?

A beta of 1.3 means that a portfolio’s value is 30% more volatile than the overall market, which means its value will swing more wildly than the market.

Why is market portfolio beta 1?

Beta measures a portfolio or asset’s sensitivity relative to the overall market. If a portfolio’s beta is 1, it is equally as volatile as the market, not more or less so.

How do I reduce my portfolio beta?

Perhaps the simplest way to reduce your overall portfolio’s beta is to replace higher-beta assets within the portfolio with assets that have lower associated beta.

Is it possible to have zero beta portfolio?

It is possible, and would amount to a zero-beta portfolio, which means the portfolio itself has no systemic risk whatsoever. In other words, this portfolio would have no relationship to the overall movements of the market, and likely have low returns.

What is the difference between stock beta and portfolio beta?

A stock beta is a measure of an individual stock’s volatility, while portfolio beta is a measure of an overall investment portfolio’s volatility.


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INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

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What Is the Roth IRA 5-Year Rule? Are There Exceptions?

The Roth IRA 5-year rule is one of the rules that governs what an investor can and can’t do with funds in a Roth IRA. The Roth IRA 5-year rule comes into play when a person withdraws funds from the account; rolls a traditional IRA account into a Roth; or inherits a Roth IRA account.

Here’s what you need to know.

Key Points

•   The Roth IRA 5-year rule requires accounts to be open for five years before earnings can be withdrawn tax-free after age 59 ½.

•   Contributions to a Roth IRA can be withdrawn at any time without penalties.

•   Exceptions to the 5-year rule include reaching age 59 ½, disability, and using funds for a first home purchase.

•   Each conversion from a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA starts a new 5-year period for tax purposes.

•   Inherited Roth IRAs also adhere to the 5-year rule, affecting the taxation of earnings withdrawals.

What Is the Roth IRA 5-Year Rule?

The Roth IRA 5-year rule pertains to withdrawals of earnings from a Roth IRA. A quick reminder of how a Roth works: An individual can contribute funds to a Roth IRA, up to annual limits. For 2024, the maximum IRS contribution limit for Roth IRAs is $7,000. Investors 50 and older are allowed to contribute an extra $1,000 in catch-up contributions. For 2023, the maximum IRS contribution limit for Roth IRAs is $6,500 annually. Investors 50 and older can contribute an extra $1,000.

Roth IRA contributions can be withdrawn at any time without tax or penalty, for any reason at any age. However, investment earnings on those contributions can only typically be withdrawn tax- and penalty-free once the investor reaches the age of 59 ½ — and as long as the account has been open for at least a five-year period. The five-year period begins on January 1 of the year you made your first contribution to the Roth IRA. Even if you make your contribution at the very end of the year, you can still count that entire year as year one.

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Example of the Roth IRA 5-Year Rule

To illustrate how the 5-year rule works, say an investor opened a Roth IRA in 2022 to save for retirement. The individual contributed $5,000 to a Roth IRA and earned $400 in interest and they now want to withdraw a portion of the money. Since this retirement account is less than five years old, only the $5,000 contribution could be withdrawn without tax or penalty. If part or all of the investment earnings is withdrawn sooner than five years after opening the account, this money may be subject to a 10% penalty.

In 2027, the investor can withdraw earnings tax-free from the Roth IRA because the five-year period will have passed.

💡 Quick Tip: How much does it cost to open a new IRA account? Often there are no fees to open an IRA, but you typically pay investment costs for the securities in your portfolio.

Exceptions to the 5-Year Rule

There are some exceptions to the Roth IRA 5-year rule, however. According to the IRS, a Roth IRA account holder who takes a withdrawal before the account is five years old may not have to pay the 10% penalty in the following situations:

•   They have reached age 59 ½.

•   They are totally and permanently disabled.

•   They are the beneficiary of a deceased IRA owner.

•   They are using the distribution (up to $10,000) to buy, build, or rebuild a first home.

•   The distributions are part of a series of substantially equal payments.

•   They have unreimbursed medical expenses that are more than 7.5% of their adjusted gross income for the year.

•   They are paying medical insurance premiums during a period of unemployment.

•   They are using the distribution for qualified higher education expenses.

•   The distribution is due to an IRS levy of the qualified plan.

•   They are taking qualified reservist distributions.

5-Year Rule for Roth IRA Conversions

Some investors who have traditional IRAs may consider rolling them over into a Roth IRA. Typically, the money converted from the traditional IRA to a Roth is taxed as income, so it may make sense to talk to a financial or tax professional before making this move.

If this Roth IRA conversion is made, the 5-year rule still applies. The key date is the tax year in which the conversion happened. So, if an investor converted a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA on September 15, 2022, the five-year period would start on January 1, 2022. If the conversion took place on March 10, 2023, the five-year period would start on January 1, 2023. So, unless the conversion took place on January 1 of a certain year, typically, the 5-year rule doesn’t literally equate to five full calendar years.

If an investor makes multiple conversions from a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA, perhaps one in 2023 and one in 2024, then each conversion has its own unique five-year window for the rule.

5-Year Rule for Inherited Roth IRA

The 5-year rule also applies to inherited Roth IRAs. Here’s how it works.

When the owner of a Roth IRA dies, the balance of the account may be inherited by beneficiaries. These beneficiaries can withdraw money without penalty, whether the money they take is from the principal (contributions made by the original account holder) or from investment earnings, as long as the original account holder had the Roth IRA for at least five years. If the original account holder had the Roth IRA for fewer than five tax years, however, the earnings portion of the beneficiary withdrawals is subject to taxation until the five-year anniversary is reached.

People who inherit Roth IRAs, unlike the original account holders, must take required minimum distributions (RMDs). They can do so by withdrawing funds by December 31 of the 10th year after the original holder died if they died after 2019 (or the fifth year if the original account holder died before 2020), or have the withdrawals taken out based upon their own life expectancy.

💡 Quick Tip: All investments come with some degree of risk — and some are riskier than others. Before investing online, decide on your investment goals and how much risk you want to take.

How to Shorten the 5-Year Waiting Period

To shorten the five-year waiting period, an investor could open a Roth IRA online and make a contribution on the day before income taxes are due and have it applied to the previous year. For example, if one were to make the contribution in April 2023, that contribution could be considered as being made in the 2022 tax year. As long as this doesn’t cause problems with annual contribution caps, the five-year window would effectively expire in 2027 rather than 2028.

If the same investor opens a second Roth IRA — say in 2024 — the five-year window still expires (in this example) in 2027. The initial Roth IRA opened by an investor determines the beginning of the five-year waiting period for all subsequently opened Roth IRAs.

The Takeaway

For Roth IRA account holders, the 5-year rule is key. After the account has been opened for five years, an account holder who is 59 ½ or older can withdraw investment earnings without incurring taxes or penalties. While there are exceptions to this so-called 5-year rule, for anyone who has a Roth IRA account, this is important information to know about.

Ready to invest for your retirement? It’s easy to get started when you open a traditional or Roth IRA with SoFi. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

Easily manage your retirement savings with a SoFi IRA.

FAQ

Do I have to wait 5 years to withdraw from my Roth IRA?

Because of the Roth IRA 5-year rule, you generally have to wait at least five years before withdrawing earnings tax-free from your Roth IRA. You can, however, withdraw contributions you made to your Roth IRA at any time tax-free.

Does the 5-year rule apply to Roth contributions?

No, the Roth IRA rule does not apply to contributions made to your Roth IRA, only to earnings. You can withdraw contributions you made to your IRA tax-free at any time.



Third-Party Brand Mentions: No brands, products, or companies mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third-party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.

SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

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Retirement Plan Options for the Self-Employed

Being your own boss is great, and the retirement plan options when you’re self-employed — like a SEP-IRA or solo 401(k) — can be surprisingly robust.

Not only do you have more options in terms of self-employed retirement plans than you might think, some of these plans come with higher contribution limits and greater tax benefits than traditional plans. That’s especially true since the passage of the SECURE 2.0 Act, which has favorably adjusted the rules of many retirement plans.

Key Points

•   Self-employed individuals have robust retirement plan options like SEP-IRA and solo 401(k) with high contribution limits and tax benefits.

•   These plans are similar to traditional ones, allowing long-term contributions and investment selections.

•   SEP-IRAs are ideal for business owners with employees, offering simplified contributions that are tax-deductible.

•   Solo 401(k) plans suit owner-only businesses, allowing substantial contributions as both employer and employee.

•   SIMPLE IRAs are designed for small businesses with fewer than 100 employees, enabling both employer and employee contributions.

What Are Self-Employed Retirement Plans?

In some ways, self-employed retirement plans aren’t so different from regular retirement plans. You can set aside money now, select investments within the account, and continue to contribute and invest for the long term.

Similar to traditional retirement plans, you have two main categories most self-employed plans fall into:

•   Tax-deferred retirement accounts (e.g traditional, SEP, or SIMPLE IRAs and solo 401(k) plans). The amount you can save varies by the type of account. The money you set aside is deductible, and you don’t pay tax on that portion of your income. You do pay taxes on the funds you withdraw in retirement.

•   After-tax retirement accounts (typically designated as Roth IRAs or Roth 401(k) accounts). Here you can also save up to the prescribed annual limit, but the money you save is after-tax income and cannot be deducted. That said, withdrawals in retirement are tax free.

A note about Roth eligibility: Roth IRAs come with income limits. If your income is higher than the prescribed limit, you may not be eligible. Roth 401(k) plans do not come with income restrictions. Details below.

Understanding Beneficiary Rules for Self-Employed Plans

The rules that apply to inherited retirement accounts are extremely complicated. If you’re the beneficiary of an IRA, solo 401(k) or other retirement account, you may want to consult a professional as terms vary widely, and penalties can apply.

Administrative Factors to Consider

When selecting a self-employed retirement plan, it’s important to weigh the set up, administrative, and IRS filing rules. Some plans are easier to establish and maintain than others.

Given that running a plan can add to your overall time and personnel costs, it’s important to do a cost-benefit analysis when choosing a retirement plan when you’re a freelancer, consultant, or small business owner.

💡 Quick Tip: Want to lower your taxable income? Start saving for retirement with a traditional IRA. The money you save each year is tax deductible (and you don’t owe any taxes until you withdraw the funds, usually in retirement).

Types of Self-Employed Retirement Plans

The IRS outlines a number of retirement plans for those who are freelance, self-employed, or who run their own businesses. Here are the basics.

Traditional and Roth IRAs

What they are: One of the most popular types of retirement plans is an IRA — or Individual Retirement Arrangement.

As noted above, there are traditional IRAs, which are tax deferred, as well as Roth IRAs, which are after-tax accounts.

Suited for: While anyone with earned income can open a traditional or Roth IRA, these accounts can also be used specifically as self-employed retirement plans. They are simple to set up; and most financial institutions offer IRAs.

That said, IRAs have the lowest contribution limits of any self-employed plans, and may be better suited to those who are starting out, or who have a side hustle, and can’t contribute large amounts to a retirement account.

Contribution limits. There is no age limit for contributing to a traditional or Roth IRA, but there are contribution limits (and for Roth IRAs there are income limits; see below).

For tax year 2024, you can contribute up to $7,000 annually to either type of IRA, with an additional $1,000 catch-up contribution allowed for people over 50 years old. (For tax year 2023, you may contribute $6,500 per year, $7,500 with the catch-up provision, until April 15, 2024.)

Note that your total annual combined contributions across all your IRA accounts cannot exceed those limits. So if you’re 35 and contribute $3,000 to a Roth IRA for 2024, you cannot contribute more than $4,000 to a traditional IRA in the same year, for a maximum total annual contribution of $7,000.

Income limits: There are no income limits for contributing to a traditional IRA, but Roth IRAs do come with income restrictions. In 2024, that limit is $146,000 for single people (people earning more than $146,000 but less than $161,000 can contribute a reduced amount). For those individuals who are married and file taxes jointly, the limit is $230,000 to make a full contribution, and between $230,000 to $240,000 for a reduced amount.

Tax benefits: The main difference between a traditional vs. Roth IRA is the tax treatment of the money you save.

•   With a traditional IRA, the contributions you make are tax-deductible when you make them (unless you’re covered by a retirement plan at work, in which case conditions apply). Withdrawals are taxed at ordinary income rates.

•   With a Roth IRA, there are no tax breaks for your contributions, but qualified withdrawals are tax free.

Withdrawal rules: You owe ordinary income tax on withdrawals from a traditional IRA after age 59 ½. You may owe a 10% penalty on early withdrawals, i.e. before age 59 ½. There are exceptions to this rule for medical and educational expenses, as well as other conditions, so be sure to check with a professional or on IRS.gov.

The rules and restrictions for taking withdrawals from a Roth are more complex. Although your contributions to a Roth IRA (i.e. your principal) can be withdrawn at any time, investment earnings on those contributions can only be withdrawn tax-free and without penalty once the investor reaches the age of 59½ — and as long as the account has been open for at least five years (a.k.a. the 5-year rule).

Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs): You are not required to take minimum distributions from a Roth IRA account. You are required to take minimum distributions from a traditional IRA starting at age 73. RMD rules can be complicated, so you may want to consult a professional to avoid making a mistake and potentially owing a penalty.

Solo 401(k)

What it is: A solo 401(k) is a self-employed retirement plan that the IRS also refers to as a one-participant 401(k) plan. It works a bit like a regular employer-backed 401(k), except that in this instance you’re the employer and the employee. There are contribution rules for each role, but this dual structure enables freelancers and solo business owners to save more than a standard 401(k) would allow.

Suited for: A solo 401(k) covers a business owner who has no employees, or employs only their spouse.

Contribution limits:

•   As the employee: For 2024, you can contribute up to $23,000 or 100% of compensation (whichever is less), with an additional $7,500 in catch-up contributions allowed if you’re over 50, for a total of $30,500.

•   As the employer: You can contribute up to 25% of your net earnings, with separate rules for single-member LLCs or sole proprietors.

Total contributions cannot exceed a total of $69,000, or $76,500 if you’re 50 and over.

You can not use a solo 401(k) if you have any employees, though you can hire your spouse so they can also contribute to the plan (and you can match their contributions as the employer), further reducing your taxable income.

Note that 401(k) contribution limits are per person, not per plan (similar to IRA rules), so if either you or your spouse are enrolled in another 401(k) plan, then the $69,000 limit per person must take into account any contributions to that other 401(k) plan.

Income limits: There is a limit on the amount of compensation that’s allowed for use in determining your contributions. For tax year 2024 it’s $345,000.

Tax benefits: A solo 401(k) has a similar tax setup as a traditional 401(k). Contributions can be deducted, thus reducing your taxable income and potentially the amount of tax you owe for the year you contribute. But you owe ordinary income tax on any withdrawals.

Withdrawal rules: You can take withdrawals from a solo 401(k) without penalty at age 59 ½ or older. Distributions may be allowed before that time in the case of certain “triggering events,” such as a disability (you can find a list of exceptions at IRS.gov), but you may owe a 10% penalty as well as income tax on the withdrawal.

Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs): You are required to take minimum distributions from a solo 401(k) starting at age 73. RMD rules can be complicated, so you may want to consult a professional to avoid making a mistake and potentially owing a penalty.

Simplified Employee Pension (or a SEP-IRA)

What it is: A SEP-IRA, or Simplified Employee Pension plan, is similar to a traditional IRA with a streamlined way for an employer (in this case, you) to make contributions to their own and their employees’ retirement savings. Note that when using a SEP-IRA, the employer makes all contributions; employees do not contribute to the SEP.

Suited for: A key difference in a SEP-IRA vs. other self-employment retirement plans is that it’s designed for those who run a business with employees. Employers have to contribute an equal percentage of salary for every employee (and you are counted as an employee). Again, employees may not contribute to the SEP-IRA.

That means, as the employer, you can not contribute more to your retirement account than to your employees’ accounts (as a percentage, not in absolute dollars). On the plus side, it’s slightly simpler than a solo 401(k) to manage in terms of paperwork and annual reporting.

Contribution limits: For 2024, the SEP-IRA rules and limits are as follows: you can contribute up to $69,000 or 25% of an employee’s total compensation, whichever is less. Be sure to understand employee eligibility rules.

As the employer you can contribute up to 20% of your net compensation.

Note that SEP-IRAs are flexible: Contribution amounts can vary each year, and you can skip a year.

Income limits: For tax year 2024 there is an income cap of $345,000 on the compensation.

Tax benefits: Employer and employees can deduct contributions from their earnings, and withdrawals in retirement are taxed as income.

Withdrawal rules: You can take withdrawals from a SEP-IRA without penalty at age 59 ½ or older. Distributions may be allowed before that time in the case of certain “triggering events,” such as a disability (you can find a list of exceptions at IRS.gov), but you may owe a 10% penalty as well as income tax on the withdrawal.

Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs): You are required to take minimum distributions from a SEP-IRA starting at age 73. RMD rules can be complicated, so you may want to consult a professional to avoid making a mistake and potentially owing a penalty.

New rules under SECURE 2.0: Starting in 2024, SEP-IRA plans can now include a designated Roth option. But not all plan providers offer the Roth option at this time.

💡 Quick Tip: All investments come with some degree of risk — and some are riskier than others. Before investing online, decide on your investment goals and how much risk you want to take.

SIMPLE IRA

What it is: A SIMPLE IRA (which stands for Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees) is similar to a SEP-IRA except it’s designed for larger businesses. Unlike a SEP plan, individual employees can also contribute to their own retirement as salary deferrals out of their paycheck.

Suited for: Small businesses that typically employ 100 people or less.

Contribution limits for employers: A small business owner who sets up a SIMPLE plan has two options.

•   Matching contributions. The employer can match employee contributions dollar for dollar, up to 3%.

•   Fixed contributions. The employer can contribute a fixed 2% of compensation for each employee.

Employer contributions are required every year (unlike a SEP-IRA plan), and similar to a SEP, contributions are based on a maximum compensation amount of $345,000 for 2024.

Contribution limits for employees: Employees can contribute up to $16,000 to a SIMPLE plan for 2023, and additional $3,500 for those 50 and up.

Tax benefits: Employer and employees can deduct contributions from their earnings, and withdrawals in retirement are taxed as income.

Withdrawal rules: Withdrawals are taxed as income. If you make an early withdrawal before the age of 59 ½ , you’ll likely incur a 10% penalty much like a regular 401(k); do so within the first two years of setting up the SIMPLE account and the penalty jumps to 25%.

Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs): You are required to take minimum distributions from a SEP-IRA starting at age 73. RMD rules can be complicated, so you may want to consult a professional to avoid making a mistake and potentially owing a penalty.

New rules under SECURE 2.0: Starting in 2024, the federal law permits employers that provide a SIMPLE plan to make additional contributions on behalf of employees, as long as the amount doesn’t exceed 10% of compensation or $5,000, whichever is less. This amount will be indexed for inflation.

Under these new rules, student loan payments that employees make can be treated as elective deferrals (contributions) for the purpose of the employer’s matching contributions.

In addition, SIMPLE plans can now include a designated Roth option, but not all plan providers offer the Roth option at this time.

Defined-Benefit Retirement Plan

Another retirement option you’ve probably heard about is the defined-benefit plan, or pension plan. Typically, a defined benefit plan pays out set annual benefits upon retirement, usually based on salary and years of service.

Typically pension plans have been set up and run by very large entities, such as corporations and federal and local governments. But it is possible for a self-employed individual to set up a DB plan.

These plans do allow for very high contributions, but the downside of trying to set up and run your own pension plan is the cost and hassle. Because a pension provides fixed income payments in retirement (i.e. the defined benefit), actuarial oversight is required annually.

The Takeaway

When you’re an entrepreneur, freelance, or otherwise self-employed, it may feel as if you’re out on your own, and your options are limited in terms of retirement plans. But in fact there are a number of options to consider, including various types of IRAs and a solo 401(k).

Ready to invest for your retirement? It’s easy to get started when you open a traditional or Roth IRA with SoFi. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

Easily manage your retirement savings with a SoFi IRA.



SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

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