How Much a $400,000 Mortgage Will Cost You

The monthly payments on a $400,000 mortgage could range from about $2,300 to more than $3,700, depending on the loan’s interest rate, term, and other factors. But hopeful homebuyers would be wise to consider how much that mortgage could cost over time as well as what the monthly payments might be. Read on for a breakdown of what some of your home-buying costs might be, and how they could affect the total cost of a $400,000 mortgage.

What Will a $400,000 Mortgage Cost?

There are several different costs you may run into when taking out a mortgage. Most of the time, they can be divided into three main categories.

First-time homebuyers can
prequalify for a SoFi mortgage loan,
with as little as 3% down.


Closing Costs

Closing costs are expenses you’ll pay upfront when you get a loan. They can include things like loan processing fees, third-party services such as appraisals and title insurance, and government fees and taxes. You also may decide to pay mortgage points (also called discount points) upfront on your loan to lower the interest rate. Closing costs can vary significantly from one loan type and lender to the next, but they generally range from 3% to 6% of the mortgage amount.

Monthly Payments

Monthly mortgage payments, which are paid over the life of your loan, typically include two main parts:

•   Principal: This portion of your mortgage payment goes directly toward paying back the amount you borrowed.

•   Interest: This is the fee the lender will charge you for borrowing money. The amount of interest you pay each month will be calculated by multiplying your interest rate by your remaining loan balance.

Escrow

Some homebuyers may also have a third amount, called escrow, included in their closing costs and/or monthly payments. Lenders often collect and hold money in an escrow account so they can be sure critical bills like homeowners insurance and property taxes are paid on time. (Curious about the most budget-friendly places to buy? Check out this list of the most affordable cities in each state.)


💡 Quick Tip: SoFi’s Lock and Look + feature allows you to lock in a low mortgage financing rate for 90 days while you search for the perfect place to call home.

What Would the Payment Be on a $400,000 Mortgage?

We’ll keep things simple and eliminate the costs associated with an escrow account to calculate what the payment on a $400,000 mortgage’s monthly payments might be.

Let’s say you wanted to purchase a home for $500,000, and you had $100,000 for a down payment. If your lender offered you a 7% annual percentage rate (APR) on a 15-year loan for $400,000, you could expect your monthly payment — principal and interest — to be about $3,595. If you had a 30-year loan with a 7% APR, your payment could be about $2,661.

Here are some more examples that show the difference between a 15-year loan vs. a 30-year loan, using SoFi’s Mortgage Calculator:

APR Payment with 15-year Loan Payment with 30-year Loan
5.5% $3,268 $2,271
6.5% $3,484 $2,528
7.5% $3,708 $2,796

Where Can You Get a $400,000 Mortgage?

Homebuyers may have a few different options when deciding where to go for a mortgage, including online banks and lenders, and traditional banks and credit unions. Because the rates and terms lenders offer may vary, it can be a good idea to shop around for a mortgage that’s the right fit for your individual needs.

Before you start looking for quotes, though, you may want to sit down and review the different types of mortgages you can qualify for. How would a 15-, 20-, or 30-year mortgage affect your monthly payments? Are you looking for a fixed or adjustable mortgage rate? Would you be better off with a conventional mortgage or a government-backed loan? (Some loans may have more flexible requirements for down payment amounts or a borrower’s credit score.)

Once you start comparison shopping, you can note the pros and cons of various offers and narrow down your choices. You also may want to read some online reviews of the lenders you’re considering.

Recommended: 2024 Home Loan Help Center

How Much Interest Will You Pay on a $400,000 Mortgage?

The interest rate your lender offers can make a big difference to the overall cost of your mortgage. So can the mortgage term you choose.

On a $400,000 mortgage at a 7% APR, for example, your total interest costs could range from $247,156 to $558,036, depending on the length of the loan you choose (15 vs. 30 years).

Spreading out your mortgage payments over a longer term can lower your monthly payment, but you can expect to pay more for the loan overall. Your financial circumstances at the time you take out your loan may dictate which is a priority for you. (If you go for a longer loan, and your situation changes, you may decide to refinance your home mortgage to a shorter term down the road.)


💡 Quick Tip: If you refinance your mortgage and shorten your loan term, you could save a substantial amount in interest over the lifetime of the loan.

How Does Amortization Work on a $400,000 Mortgage?

Though your payment will remain the same every month (if you have a fixed-rate loan), the amount you’ll pay toward interest vs. principal will change over the life of your home loan. In the first years, the majority of your payment will go toward interest. But as your balance goes down, more of your payment will go toward principal.

Your lender can provide you with a mortgage amortization schedule that shows you how the proportions will change as you make payments on your loan.

Here’s what the amortization schedules for a $400,000 mortgage with 30- and 15-year terms might look like. (Keep in mind that your payments may include other costs besides principal and interest.)

Amortization Schedule, 30-Year Loan at 7% APR

Year Amount Paid Interest Paid Principal Paid Remaining Balance
1 $31,934.52 $27,871.28 $4,063.24 $395,936.76
2 $31,934.52 $27,577.55 $4,356.97 $391,579.79
3 $31,934.52 $27,262.58 $4,671.94 $386,907.85
4 $31,934.52 $26,924.85 $5,009.67 $381,898.18
5 $31,934.52 $26,562.70 $5,371.82 $376,526.36
6 $31,934.52 $26,174.37 $5,760.15 $370,766.21
7 $31,934.52 $25,757.97 $6,176.55 $364,589.66
8 $31,934.52 $25,311.46 $6,623.06 $357,966.60
9 $31,934.52 $24,832.68 $7,101.84 $350,864.76
10 $31,934.52 $24,319.29 $7,615.23 $343,249.53
11 $31,934.52 $23,768.78 $8,165.74 $335,083.80
12 $31,934.52 $23,178.48 $8,756.04 $326,327.76
13 $31,934.52 $22,545.51 $9,389.01 $316.938.75
14 $31,934.52 $21,866.78 $10,067.74 $306,871.01
15 $31,934.52 $21,138.98 $10,795.54 $296,075.46
16 $31,934.52 $20,358.57 $11,575.95 $284,499.51
17 $31,934.52 $19,521.74 $12,412.78 $272,086.73
18 $31,934.52 $18,624.42 $13,310.10 $258,776.63
19 $31,934.52 $17,662.23 $14,272.29 $244,504.35
20 $31,934.52 $16,630.49 $15,304.03 $229,200.31
21 $31,934.52 $15,524.16 $16,410.36 $212,789.95
22 $31,934.52 $14,337.85 $17,596.67 $195,193.28
23 $31,934.52 $13,065.79 $18,868.73 $176,324.55
24 $31,934.52 $11,701.76 $20,232.76 $156,091.79
25 $31,934.52 $10,239.14 $21,695.38 $134,396.41
26 $31,934.52 $8,670.78 $23,263.74 $111,132.66
27 $31,934.52 $6,989.04 $24,945.48 $86,187.18
28 $31,934.52 $5,185.73 $26,748.79 $59,438.39
29 $31,934.52 $3,252.05 $28,682.47 $30,755.92
30 $31,934.52 $30,755.92 $1,178.60 $0

Amortization Schedule, 15-Year Loan at 7% APR

Year Amount Paid Interest Paid Principal Paid Remaining Balance
1 $43,143.76 $27,504.57 $15,639.19 $384,360.81
2 $43,143.76 $26,374.01 $16,769.75 $367,591.06
3 $43,143.76 $25,161.72 $17,982.04 $349,609.02
4 $43,143.76 $23,861.80 $19,281.96 $330,327.06
5 $43,143.76 $22,467.90 $20,675.85 $309,651.21
6 $43,143.76 $20,973.24 $22,170.51 $287,480.69
7 $43,143.76 $19,370.54 $23,773.22 $263,707.47
8 $43,143.76 $17,651.97 $25,491.79 $238,215.68
9 $43,143.76 $15,809.16 $27,334.59 $210,881.09
10 $43,143.76 $13,833.14 $29,310.61 $181,570.48
11 $43,143.76 $11,714.28 $31,429.48 $150,141.00
12 $43,143.76 $9,442.24 $33,701.52 $116,439.48
13 $43,143.76 $7,005.95 $36,137.80 $80,301.67
14 $43,143.76 $4,393.55 $38,750.21 $41,551.47
15 $43,143.76 $1,592.29 $41,551.47 $0

How to Get a $400,000 Mortgage

If you’re feeling intimidated by the whole home-buying process, breaking it down into some manageable steps may make things a little less overwhelming.

First, Determine What You Can Afford

Reviewing your income, debts, monthly spending, and how much you’ve saved for a down payment can be a good place to start. This will help you decide how much of a down payment you can handle and how much house you can afford.

Compare Different Loans and Lenders

Once you know what you can afford, you can start looking for the loan type, interest rate, loan term, and lender that meet your needs.

Consider Getting Preapproved

If you’ve decided on a loan and lender, it can be a good idea to go through the preapproval process. Getting a letter from your lender that says you’re preapproved for a certain loan amount lets sellers know you’re a serious buyer. (And it can come in handy if you get into a bidding war for your dream home.)

Get Ready to Go House Hunting

When you have your loan lined up, you can look for and potentially make an offer on a house. And since you already know how much you can afford, you can target homes in that range.

Submit a Full Mortgage Application

Once your offer is accepted and you’re ready to move forward, your lender will ask you to complete a more formal loan application and provide additional financial information and documentation.

Prepare for Closing

While you’re waiting for a final loan approval and a closing date, you can shop for homeowners insurance, get a home inspection, and make sure you have all the money you need for your down payment and closing costs.

Take Ownership of Your New Home

At the closing you can sign all the necessary paperwork, hand over the funds needed to make the purchase, and — congratulations! — get the keys to your new home.

Recommended: First-Time Homebuyer Guide

The Takeaway

Researching the different costs you might have to pay if you plan to take out a $400,000 mortgage can help you stick to your budget and avoid unpleasant surprises.

The choices you make about the type of loan you get, the interest rate, loan term, and other costs, will all play part in how much you pay every month — and over the length of the loan. So it can be a good idea to run the numbers before you decide on a particular lender or loan.

Looking for an affordable option for a home mortgage loan? SoFi can help: We offer low down payments (as little as 3% - 5%*) with our competitive and flexible home mortgage loans. Plus, applying is extra convenient: It's online, with access to one-on-one help.

SoFi Mortgages: simple, smart, and so affordable.

FAQ

How much is a $400,000 mortgage a month?

The monthly payment for a $400,000 mortgage could range from about $2,300 to more than $3,700, depending on several factors, including the interest rate and loan term.

How much income is required for a $400,000 mortgage?

Lenders will look at several factors besides your income to determine if you can afford a $400,000 mortgage. You can expect to be asked about your debt, credit history, assets, and the down payment you plan to make.

How much is a down payment on a $400,000 mortgage?

Your down payment may vary depending on the price of the house you choose, the type of loan you get, and if you want to avoid paying private mortgage insurance as part of your borrowing costs. Traditionally, lenders like to see a 20% down payment, which on a $500,000 home would be a $100,000 down payment and a $400,000 mortgage. But many lenders accept lower down payments.

Can I afford a $400,000 mortgage with a $70,000 salary?

Since your housing costs (monthly payments, insurance, etc.) would likely be more than half your monthly salary, it could be a challenge to afford a $400,000 mortgage on a $70,000 salary.


Photo credit: iStock/svetikd

SoFi Loan Products
SoFi loans are originated by SoFi Bank, N.A., NMLS #696891 (Member FDIC). For additional product-specific legal and licensing information, see SoFi.com/legal. Equal Housing Lender.


SoFi Mortgages
Terms, conditions, and state restrictions apply. Not all products are available in all states. See SoFi.com/eligibility for more information.


*SoFi requires Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) for conforming home loans with a loan-to-value (LTV) ratio greater than 80%. As little as 3% down payments are for qualifying first-time homebuyers only. 5% minimum applies to other borrowers. Other loan types may require different fees or insurance (e.g., VA funding fee, FHA Mortgage Insurance Premiums, etc.). Loan requirements may vary depending on your down payment amount, and minimum down payment varies by loan type.

+Lock and Look program: Terms and conditions apply. Applies to conventional purchase loans only. Rate will lock for 91 calendar days at the time of preapproval. An executed purchase contract is required within 60 days of your initial rate lock. If current market pricing improves by 0.25 percentage points or more from the original locked rate, you may request your loan officer to review your loan application to determine if you qualify for a one-time float down. SoFi reserves the right to change or terminate this offer at any time with or without notice to you.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.

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I Make $100,000 a Year. How Much House Can I Afford?

On a salary of $100,000 per year, as long as you have minimal debt, you can afford a house priced at around $311,000 with a monthly payment of $2,333. This number assumes a 6.5% interest rate and a down payment of around $30,000.

The 28/36 rule is often used as a guide when deciding how much house you can afford. The rule stipulates that you should not spend more than 28 percent of your salary on overall housing costs and no more than 36 percent on housing costs and your debt. On a salary of $100K with debts of about $250 per month, a house costing $311,000 just fits in your budget.

However, how much home you can afford depends on other factors also, such as where you intend to live and how much you have saved as a down payment.

This article looks at how all of these factors affect your home purchase and gives some examples of how much home you can realistically afford on a salary of $100,000.

First-time homebuyers can
prequalify for a SoFi mortgage loan,
with as little as 3% down.


What Kind of House Can I Afford With $100K a Year?

Another rule of thumb often applied when buying a home is to not spend more than three times your annual income on a home. If you earn $100,000 a year, that would be $300,000.

A salary of $100,000 is well above the national median income (according to Census data, the national median income was $74,580 in 2022). That puts you in a good position if you want to buy a home, particularly if the cost of living is low in the area that you are targeting. If you have substantial savings for a down payment and little debt, you’re even better positioned. Debt is important because lenders look at how much debt you have when they qualify you for a mortgage.

Your Debt-to-Income Ratio

Your debt-to-income (DTI) ratio is the amount of income you receive relative to the amount of payments you make each month to cover your debt. You’ll get better loan terms, and your monthly mortgage loan payments will be less, if you have less debt.

That’s why many experts also recommend the 28/36 rule. So, if you earn $100K, your housing costs should be less than $28,000, $2,333 a month, and your debt and housing costs should not exceed $36,000, or $3,000 a month.

Your Down Payment

Unless you qualify for a zero-down USDA or VA loan, most lenders will expect a down payment of between 3% and 20%. The more you put down, the more house you can afford, but as you think about your down payment amount, make sure you reserve funds for closing costs, moving costs, and an emergency fund for unexpected expenses.

Home Affordability

Homes are more affordable in certain areas. Some areas have a higher cost of living and higher property taxes.

Your credit score will also affect how much home you can afford. If you have a high credit score, you will qualify for a lower interest rate loan. If you pay less interest, you can borrow more and still meet your monthly payments.

Depending on where you want to live, the housing market might dictate how big a home you can afford. House prices are affected by the economic conditions, and low unemployment rates and healthy economic growth gives buyers more purchasing power. If buyers have more purchasing power, they can afford bigger loans, and this will push up house prices.


💡 Quick Tip: When house hunting, don’t forget to lock in your home mortgage loan rate so there are no surprises if your offer is accepted.

How to Afford More House with Down Payment Assistance

Some people, such as first-time buyers or certain professionals like nurses and teachers, can qualify for down payment assistance from federal, state, and local government, private entities, and charitable organizations. Assistance might be in the form of a low-rate loan, cash grant, tax credit, or a reduced interest rate.

Applying for down payment assistance can add weeks or months to your home buying timeline, but for more information, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) keeps a list of programs listed by state, county, and city.

Here are typical down payment amounts for various types of mortgages.

•   Conventional mortgages require a 3% down payment for first-time buyers

•   FHA mortgages require 3.5% down

•   VA mortgages require 0% down

•   USDA: These zero down payment loans serve low-income borrowers in rural areas.

Home Affordability Examples

Let’s take a look at some hypothetical examples for those wondering, “If I make $100K how much home can I afford?” These examples assume an interest rate of 6.5% and average property taxes.

Example #1: Low Down Payment and Significant Debt

Gross annual income: $100,000
Down payment: $10,000
Monthly debt: $1000

Home budget: $238,441

Monthly mortgage payment: $2,000

Payment breakdown:

•   Principal and interest: $1,444

•   Property taxes: $208

•   Private mortgage insurance: $264

•   Homeowner’s insurance: $83

Example #2: Bigger Down Payment, Less Debt

Gross annual income: $100,000
Down payment: $40,000
Monthly debt: $300

Home budget: $333,212

Monthly mortgage payment: $2,333

Payment breakdown:

•   Principal and interest: $1,853

•   Property taxes: $208

•   Private mortgage insurance: $188

•   Homeowner’s insurance: $83

How to Calculate How Much House You Can Afford

You need a budget to find out how much house you can afford. Keeping a budget will show you how much you are spending each month versus how much income you have. Whatever you have leftover after paying essentials like food, clothing, and utilities is how much you can afford to spend on housing.

You can also use a mortgage calculator to help you. Just plug in your own numbers to find out what your monthly payments would be.


💡 Quick Tip: Not to be confused with prequalification, preapproval involves a longer application, documentation, and hard credit pulls. Ideally, you want to keep your applications for preapproval to within the same 14- to 45-day period, since many hard credit pulls outside the given time period can adversely affect your credit score, which in turn affects the mortgage terms you’ll be offered.

How Your Monthly Payment Affects Your Price Range

The more you can afford to pay each month for your mortgage and other housing expenses, the more house you can afford. However if you have significant debt payments each month, or you have a poor credit score that results in a higher interest rate for your loan, that will reduce the amount of loan you can afford and the price range.

Types of Home Loans Available to $100K Households

Four types of loans are the most common. These are conventional loans, FHA loans, USDA, and VA loans.

Conventional loans typically require a credit score of 620 or more, but the down payment can be as low as 3 percent. Remember that a lower down payment means higher monthly payments because you will have to borrow more.

FHA loans. With an FHA loan, home buyers with a credit score over 580 can borrow up to 96.5% of a home’s value. Home buyers with a lower credit score, between 500 to 579, can still qualify for a loan as long as they have a 10% down payment.

USDA: USDA loans are zero down payment financing for low-income borrowers in designated rural areas.

VA: VA loans also require no down payment and are available to qualified military service members, veterans, and their spouses.

The Takeaway

If you are looking to buy a home and would like a more realistic idea of what you can afford, first find out how much you are spending on necessities like food, clothing, transportation, and, most importantly, debt. What you have leftover is how much you can spend each month on housing expenses.

Once you have a grasp on your finances, you can use an affordability calculator to see how much of a house you can afford. The size of home that the amount will buy depends on the local housing market and the cost of living where you want to live.

Looking for an affordable option for a home mortgage loan? SoFi can help: We offer low down payments (as little as 3% - 5%*) with our competitive and flexible home mortgage loans. Plus, applying is extra convenient: It's online, with access to one-on-one help.

SoFi Mortgages: simple, smart, and so affordable.

FAQ

Is $100K a good salary for a single person?

A salary of $100k is above the national median income (according to Census data, the national median income was $74,580 in 2022). This is a good salary, but you still might struggle to buy a home in areas with a high cost of living. The larger down payment you have, and the better your credit score, the bigger house you can buy.

What is a comfortable income for a single person?

A comfortable income for a single person is dependent upon where that person lives. The findings from a study using data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics to calculate the cost of necessities to determine a living wage shows wide variance existing among states. According to the study, Hawaii is the most expensive state, and singles require an annual salary of $112,411 to live comfortably. In Mississippi, you can live comfortably on $45,906 a year.

What is a liveable wage in 2023?

A liveable wage will vary depending on where you live. However, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology determined that $104,07 per year was a liveable wage before taxes in 2022. This was for a family of four with two working adults and two children.

What salary is considered rich for a single person?

According to Internal Revenue Service data, an income of $540,009 per year puts a person in the top 1% earnings category.


Photo credit: iStock/Prostock-Studio

SoFi Loan Products
SoFi loans are originated by SoFi Bank, N.A., NMLS #696891 (Member FDIC). For additional product-specific legal and licensing information, see SoFi.com/legal. Equal Housing Lender.


SoFi Mortgages
Terms, conditions, and state restrictions apply. Not all products are available in all states. See SoFi.com/eligibility for more information.


*SoFi requires Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) for conforming home loans with a loan-to-value (LTV) ratio greater than 80%. As little as 3% down payments are for qualifying first-time homebuyers only. 5% minimum applies to other borrowers. Other loan types may require different fees or insurance (e.g., VA funding fee, FHA Mortgage Insurance Premiums, etc.). Loan requirements may vary depending on your down payment amount, and minimum down payment varies by loan type.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Third-Party Brand Mentions: No brands, products, or companies mentioned are affiliated with SoFi, nor do they endorse or sponsor this article. Third-party trademarks referenced herein are property of their respective owners.

External Websites: The information and analysis provided through hyperlinks to third-party websites, while believed to be accurate, cannot be guaranteed by SoFi. Links are provided for informational purposes and should not be viewed as an endorsement.

+Lock and Look program: Terms and conditions apply. Applies to conventional purchase loans only. Rate will lock for 91 calendar days at the time of preapproval. An executed purchase contract is required within 60 days of your initial rate lock. If current market pricing improves by 0.25 percentage points or more from the original locked rate, you may request your loan officer to review your loan application to determine if you qualify for a one-time float down. SoFi reserves the right to change or terminate this offer at any time with or without notice to you.

Tax Information: This article provides general background information only and is not intended to serve as legal or tax advice or as a substitute for legal counsel. You should consult your own attorney and/or tax advisor if you have a question requiring legal or tax advice.

¹FHA loans are subject to unique terms and conditions established by FHA and SoFi. Ask your SoFi loan officer for details about eligibility, documentation, and other requirements. FHA loans require an Upfront Mortgage Insurance Premium (UFMIP), which may be financed or paid at closing, in addition to monthly Mortgage Insurance Premiums (MIP). Maximum loan amounts vary by county. The minimum FHA mortgage down payment is 3.5% for those who qualify financially for a primary purchase. SoFi is not affiliated with any government agency.
Veterans, Service members, and members of the National Guard or Reserve may be eligible for a loan guaranteed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. VA loans are subject to unique terms and conditions established by VA and SoFi. Ask your SoFi loan officer for details about eligibility, documentation, and other requirements. VA loans typically require a one-time funding fee except as may be exempted by VA guidelines. The fee may be financed or paid at closing. The amount of the fee depends on the type of loan, the total amount of the loan, and, depending on loan type, prior use of VA eligibility and down payment amount. The VA funding fee is typically non-refundable. SoFi is not affiliated with any government agency.

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Time Decay of Options: How It Works & Its Importance

Time Decay of Options: How It Works & Its Importance

Time decay, as it relates to options trading, has to do with an option contract’s loss of value as it nears its expiration date. There are numerous variables in the mix when it comes to time decay, but knowing the basics of what the terms means, and how it can affect an investment strategy, can be important for investors.

What Is Time Decay?

Time decay is the loss of an option’s value as it gets closer to expiration. An option’s time value refers to the extent to which time factors into the value — or the premium — of the option. Time decay accelerates, or declines more quickly, as the expiration date gets closer because investors have less time to exercise the contract.

For options traders, understanding the power of time decay is important whether you’re buying call options or put options. Here are the basics you need to know.

💡 Quick Tip: If you’re an experienced investor and bullish about a stock, buying call options (rather than the stock itself) can allow you to take the same position, with less cash outlay. It is possible to lose money trading options, if the price moves against you.

How Time Decay Works

The rate of change in the time value of an option is known as theta. For traders who buy options with the intention of holding them until expiration, theta usually isn’t of great concern. That’s because traders who hold contracts until the expiry date are hoping that the underlying security moves so far in their favor that the reward in terms of intrinsic value will outweigh any loss in extrinsic value.

But traders who want to close their options position prior to expiration may be more concerned about time decay. Because the security will have less time to move in their favor, the potential profit from intrinsic value is reduced, and the potential loss of extrinsic value becomes greater.

While both intrinsic and extrinsic value are important for options traders of all kinds, the type of options trading strategy a trader is using can influence which factors they put more emphasis on.

Understanding Options Pricing

Time decay isn’t a difficult concept, but it does require a quick refresher about how options are traded and priced.

Four of the main variables that impact the price of an option are:

1.    The underlying price and strike price

2.    Time left until expiration

3.    Implied volatility

4.    Time decay

The underlying price, strike price, and expiration date of the options contract are the main factors that determine its intrinsic value, while implied volatility and time decay are the factors that determine its extrinsic value.

•   Intrinsic value. An option’s intrinsic value refers to the option’s value at the time of expiration, which depends on the price of its underlying security relative to the strike price of the contract. In other words, whether the option is in the money, out of the money, or at the money.

•   Extrinsic value. Extrinsic value refers to how time can impact the option’s value, i.e. its premium. As the expiration date of the options contract approaches, there’s less time for an investor to profit from the option, so time decay or theta, accelerates and the option loses value.

Interest rates can also affect options prices, but this is more of a macro factor that doesn’t have to do with the specific contract itself.

Thus, time value represents the added value an investor has to pay for an option above the intrinsic value. Options are sometimes referred to as depreciating or wasting assets because they tend to lose value over time, since the closer the option is to expiration, the faster its time value erodes.

Recommended: Popular Options Trading Terminology to Know

How to Calculate Time Decay

The rate of an option’s time decay is measured by theta.An option with a theta of -0.05 (theta is expressed as a negative value) would be expected to fall about $0.05 each day until expiration, but this would likely accelerate during the days and weeks leading up to the expiry date.

Greek values like theta are constantly changing, and can therefore be one of the most difficult factors to take into account when trading options.

Example of Time Decay of Options

Imagine an investor is thinking about buying a call option with a strike price of $40. The current stock price is $35, so the stock has to rise by at least $5 per share for the option to be in the money. The expiration date is two months in the future, and the contract comes with a $5 premium.

Now imagine a similar contract that also has a strike price of $40 but an expiration date that is only one week away and comes with a premium of just $0.50. This contract costs much less than the $5 contract because the stock would have to gain almost 15% in value in one week to make the trade profitable, which is unlikely.

Thus, the extrinsic value of the second option contract is lower than the first, because of time decay.

How Does Time Decay Impact Options?

Option time decay is pretty straightforward in principle. Things can be more complicated in practice, but in general, options lose value over time. The more time there is between now and the expiry date of the option, the more extrinsic value the option will have. The closer the expiry date is to the current date, the more time decay will have taken effect, reducing the option’s value.

The basic idea is that because there’s less time for a security to move one way or the other, options become less valuable the closer they get to their expiration dates. This isn’t a linear process though. The rate of time decay accelerates over time, with the majority of decay occurring in the final month before expiration.

💡 Quick Tip: How to manage potential risk factors in a self-directed investment account? Doing your research and employing strategies like dollar-cost averaging and diversification may help mitigate financial risk when trading stocks.

The Takeaway

If you think about it, the time value of an option is similar to other things that have a value which is time dependent. A fresh loaf of bread, a new car, a newly built home — these items would have an intrinsic value, but you might also pay a premium when they’re at full value.

As time passes, though, consumers will pay less for loaf of bread that isn’t fresh — or a car or home that’s older — because time has eroded some of the value. Similarly, as an option gets closer to its expiration date, it too loses value owing to the effects of time decay or theta.

Qualified investors who are ready to try their hand at options trading, despite the risks involved, might consider checking out SoFi’s options trading platform. The platform’s user-friendly design allows investors to trade through the mobile app or web platform, and get important metrics like breakeven percentage, maximum profit/loss, and more with the click of a button.

Plus, SoFi offers educational resources — including a step-by-step in-app guide — to help you learn more about options trading. Trading options involves high-risk strategies, and should be undertaken by experienced investors.

For a limited time, opening and funding an Active Invest account gives you the opportunity to get up to $1,000 in the stock of your choice.


Photo credit: iStock/Tatyana Azarova

SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Options involve risks, including substantial risk of loss and the possibility an investor may lose the entire amount invested in a short period of time. Before an investor begins trading options they should familiarize themselves with the Characteristics and Risks of Standardized Options . Tax considerations with options transactions are unique, investors should consult with their tax advisor to understand the impact to their taxes.
Claw Promotion: Customer must fund their Active Invest account with at least $25 within 30 days of opening the account. Probability of customer receiving $1,000 is 0.028%. See full terms and conditions.

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What Is a Guaranteed Minimum Income Benefit (GMIB)?

What Is a Guaranteed Minimum Income Benefit (GMIB)?

A guaranteed minimum income benefit (GMIB) is an optional rider that can be included in an annuity contract to provide a minimum income amount to the annuity holder. An annuity is an insurance product in which you pay a premium to the insurance company, then receive payments back at a later date. There are a number of different types of annuities, with different annuity rates.

A GMIB annuity can ensure that you receive a consistent stream of guaranteed income. If you’re considering buying an annuity for your retirement, it’s helpful to understand what guaranteed minimum income means, and how it works.

GMIBs, Defined

A guaranteed minimum income benefit (GMIB) is a rider that the annuity holder can purchase, at an additional cost, and add it onto their annuity. The goal of a GMIB is to ensure that the annuitant will continue to receive payments from the contract — that’s the “guaranteed minimum income” part — without those payments being affected by market volatility.

Annuities are one option you might consider when starting a retirement fund. But what are annuities and how do they work? It’s important to answer this question first when discussing guaranteed minimum income benefits.

As noted, an annuity is a type of insurance contract. You purchase the contract, typically with a lump sum, on the condition that the annuity company pays money back to you now or starting at a later date, e.g. in retirement.

Depending on how the annuity is structured, your money may be invested in underlying securities or not. Depending on the terms and the annuity rates involved, you may receive a lump sum or regular monthly payments. The amount of the payment is determined by the amount of your initial deposit or premium, and the terms of the annuity contract.

A GMIB annuity is most often a variable annuity or indexed annuity product (though annuities for retirement can come in many different types).

💡 Quick Tip: How do you decide if a certain trading platform or app is right for you? Ideally, the investment platform you choose offers the features that you need for your investment goals or strategy, e.g., an easy-to-use interface, data analysis, educational tools.

How GMIBs Work

Let’s look at two different types of annuities for retirement: variable and indexed.

•   Variable annuities can offer a range of investment types, often in the form of mutual funds that hold a combination of stocks, bonds, and money market instruments.

•   Indexed annuities offer returns that are indexed to an underlying benchmark, such as the S&P 500 index, Nasdaq, or Russell 2000. This is similar to other types of indexed investments.

With either one, the value of the annuity contract is determined by the performance of the underlying investments you choose.

When the market is strong, variable annuities or indexed annuities can deliver higher returns. When market volatility increases, however, that can reduce the value of your annuity. A GMIB annuity builds in some protection against market risk by specifying a guaranteed minimum income payment you’ll receive from the annuity, independent of the annuity’s underlying market-based performance.

Of course, what you can draw from an annuity to begin with will depend on how much you invest in the contract, stated annuity rates, and to some degree your investment performance. But having a GMIB rider on this type of retirement plan can help you to lock in a predetermined amount of future income.

Pros & Cons of GMIBs

Guaranteed minimum income benefit annuities can be appealing for investors who want to have a guaranteed income stream in retirement. Whether it makes sense to purchase one can depend on how much you have to invest, how much income you’re hoping to generate, your overall goals and risk tolerance.

Weighing the pros and cons can help you to decide if a GMIB annuity is a good fit for your retirement planning strategy.

Pros of GMIBs

The main benefit of a GMIB annuity is the ability to receive a guaranteed amount of income in retirement. This can make planning for retirement easier as you can estimate how much money you’re guaranteed to receive from the annuity, regardless of what happens in the market between now and the time you choose to retire.

If you’re concerned about your spouse or partner being on track for their own retirement, that income can also carry over to your spouse and help fund their retirement needs, if you should pass away first. You can structure the annuity to make payments to you beginning at a certain date, then continue those payments to your spouse for the remainder of their life. This can provide reassurance that your spouse won’t be left struggling financially after you’re gone.

Cons of GMIBs

A main disadvantage of guaranteed minimum income benefit annuities is the cost. The more riders you add on to an annuity contract, the more this can increase the cost. So that’s something to factor in if you have a limited amount of money to invest in a variable or indexed annuity with a GMIB rider. Annuities may also come with other types of investment fees, so you may want to consult with a professional who can help you decipher the fine print.

It’s also important to consider the quality of the annuity company. An annuity is only as good as the company that issues the contract. If the company were to go out of business, your guaranteed income stream could dry up. For that reason, it’s important to review annuity ratings to get a sense of how financially stable a particular company is.

Examples of GMIB Annuities

Variable or indexed annuities that include a guaranteed minimum income benefit can be structured in different ways. For example, you may be offered the opportunity to purchase a variable annuity for $250,000. The annuity contract includes a GMIB order that guarantees you the greater of:

•   The annuity’s actual value

•   6% interest compounded annually

•   The highest value reached in the account historically

The annuity has a 10-year accumulation period in which your investments can earn interest and grow in value. This is followed by the draw period, in which you can begin taking money from the annuity.

Now, assume that at the beginning of the draw period the annuity’s actual value is $300,000. But if you were to calculate the annuitized value based on the 6% interest compounded annually, the annuity would be worth closer to $450,000. Since you have this built into the contract, you can opt to receive the higher amount thanks to the guaranteed minimum income benefit.

This example also illustrates why it’s important to be selective when choosing annuity contracts with a guaranteed minimum income benefit. The higher the guaranteed compounding benefit the better, as this can return more interest to you even if the annuity loses value because of shifting market conditions.

It’s also important to consider how long the interest will compound. Again, the more years interest can compound the better, in terms of how that might translate to the size of your guaranteed income payout later.

💡 Quick Tip: Are self-directed brokerage accounts cost efficient? They can be, because they offer the convenience of being able to buy stocks online without using a traditional full-service broker (and the typical broker fees).

The Takeaway

As discussed, guaranteed minimum income benefits (GMIB) are optional riders that can be included in an annuity contract to provide a minimum income amount to the annuity holder. Annuities can help round out your financial strategy if you’re looking for ways to create guaranteed income in retirement.

Annuities may be a part of a larger investment and retirement planning strategy, along with other types of retirement accounts. To get a better sense of how they may fit in, if at all, it may be a good idea to speak with a financial professional.

Ready to invest in your goals? It’s easy to get started when you open an investment account with SoFi Invest. You can invest in stocks, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), mutual funds, alternative funds, and more. SoFi doesn’t charge commissions, but other fees apply (full fee disclosure here).

For a limited time, opening and funding an Active Invest account gives you the opportunity to get up to $1,000 in the stock of your choice.

FAQ

What are guaranteed benefits?

When discussing annuities for retirement, guaranteed benefits are amounts that you are guaranteed to receive. Depending on how the annuity contract is structured, you may receive guaranteed benefits as a lump sum payment or annuitized payments.

What is the guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefit?

The guaranteed minimum withdrawal benefit is the amount you’re guaranteed to be able to withdraw from an annuity once the accumulation period ends. This can be the annuity’s actual value, an amount that reflects interest compounded annually or the annuity contract’s highest historical value.

What are the two types of guaranteed living benefits?

There are actually more than two types of guaranteed living benefits. For example, your annuity contract might include a guaranteed minimum income benefit, guaranteed minimum accumulation benefit or guaranteed lifetime withdrawal benefit.


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SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Claw Promotion: Customer must fund their Active Invest account with at least $25 within 30 days of opening the account. Probability of customer receiving $1,000 is 0.028%. See full terms and conditions.

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A Walkthrough of What Leverage Trading Is

Understanding Leverage Trading

Leverage allows investors to allocate a small amount of capital to get exposure to a much bigger position. Leverage, also called margin, is effectively a way of borrowing cash for increased trading power. A leverage ratio of 20:1 means a $1 investment can buy $20 worth of an asset.

Using leverage, traders can place bigger bets and potentially earn higher returns on their initial capital. However, leveraged trading also increases a trader’s risk of losses; if the asset moves in the wrong direction, the trader not only suffers a loss but must repay the amount borrowed, plus interest and fees.

This is one reason that only experienced investors qualify for leverage accounts, e.g. margin accounts, and leveraged trading opportunities.

What Is Leverage Trading?

In both business and finance, the term leverage refers to the use of debt to fuel expansion or purchase securities. In leverage trading, traders can use margin to buy assets like stocks, options, and forex.

Leverage and margin are similar concepts, but they’re different. One way to think of the differences is that a trader can use margin to increase their leverage. Margin is the tool, and leverage is the force behind the tool, which can be used to potentially increase returns (or losses).

A margin account allows you to borrow from the brokerage to purchase securities that are worth more than the cash you have on hand. In this case, the cash or securities already in your account act as collateral.

Which Securities Are Eligible for Margin?

Not all securities can be bought using leverage, however. Industry rules dictate that equities known as penny stocks and Initial Public Offering (IPO) stocks are not marginable. Generally, stocks and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) that are worth more than $3 per share, as well as mutual funds and certain types of bonds are eligible for leverage trades using margin. Check with your broker, as rules can vary by jurisdiction.

Margin can be used to trade options and futures, but this type of leverage trading can be highly risky. Forex options trading, for example, allows traders to place big bets using very small amounts of cash.

While there is no standard amount of margin in the forex market, it is common for traders to post 1% margin, which allows them to trade $100,000 of notional currency for every $1,000 posted — a ratio of 100:1.

Leverage Risks and Rewards

Leverage trading can only be successful if the return on an investment is higher than the cost to borrow money, which you must repay with interest and fees.

Leverage trading can significantly increase potential earnings, but it is also very risky because you can lose more than the entire amount of your investment. For that reason leverage is usually only available to experienced traders.

💡 Quick Tip: Investment fees are assessed in different ways, including trading costs, account management fees, and possibly broker commissions. When you set up an investment account, be sure to get the exact breakdown of your “all-in costs” so you know what you’re paying.

How Leverage Works in Trading

Leverage trading in a brokerage account consists of a trader borrowing money from the broker, then using that along with their own funds to enter into trades.

The key to understanding how using leverage can help generate higher returns, but also greater losses, is that the funds borrowed are a fixed liability. Suppose a trader starts with $50, and borrows $50 to buy $100 worth of stock. Whether the stock’s value goes up or down from there, the trader is on the hook to give back $50, plus interest, to the broker.

Example of Leverage Trading

Using the above example, suppose the stock appreciates by 10%, and the trader closes out the position. They return the $50 they borrowed, and keep the remaining $60. That equates to a $10 gain on their $50 of capital, and a 20% return — double the return of the underlying stock.

On the flip side, consider what happens if the stock declines in value by 10%. The trader closes out the position and receives $90, but has to give the broker back the $50 they borrowed, plus interest. They are left with $40, a loss of $10, plus any interest or fees, which is a 20% loss or more.

Understanding Leverage Ratio

Leverage is often expressed as a ratio. For example, a leverage ratio of 2:1 is generally the rule for using margin for equity trades. If you have $50, you can buy $100 worth of stock.

In the case of other types of securities, the leverage ratio can be much higher. A leverage ratio of 20 means a $1,000 investment would allow you to open a trading position of $20,000; 50:1 would allow you to take a position of $50,000.

Maximum Leverage

Brokers have limits on how much they’ll lend traders based on the amount of funds the trader has in their account, their own regulations, and government regulations around leverage trading. If you’re considering using leverage, be sure to understand the rules.

•   Stocks. Thanks to the Federal Reserve Board’s Regulation T, plus a FINRA rule governing margin trades in brokerage accounts, the maximum you can borrow is 50% for an equity trade.

•   Forex. The foreign currency market tends to allow greater amounts of leverage. In some cases, you can place bets as high as 100:1 in the U.S.

•   Commodities. Commodities rules around maximum leverage, and leverage ratios can fluctuate based on the underlying.

Types of Leverage Trading

There are a few different types of leverage trading, each with similarities and differences.

Trading on Margin

Margin is money that a trader borrows from their broker to purchase securities. They use the other securities in their account as collateral for the loan. If their leveraged trade goes down in value, a trader will need to sell other securities to cover the loss.

Many brokers charge interest on margin loans. So in order for a trader to earn a profit, the security has to increase in value enough to cover the interest.

Leveraged ETFs

Some ETFs use leverage to try and increase potential gains based on the index they track. For example, there is an ETF that specifically aims to return 3x the returns that the regular S&P 500 index would get.

It’s important to note that most funds reset on a daily basis. The leveraged ETF aims to match the single day performance of the underlying index. So over the long term even if an index increases in value, a leveraged ETF might decrease in value.

Derivatives

Traders can also use leverage trading with derivatives and options contracts. Buying a single options contract lets a trader control many shares of the underlying security — generally 100 shares — for far less than the value of those 100 shares. As the underlying security increases or decreases in value, the value of the options contract changes.

Options are derivatives contracts that give buyers the right, but not the obligation, to buy (in the case of a call) or sell (in the case of a put) an asset at a specified price within a certain period of time. Traders can choose to sell call options on a stock if they think it is going to decrease in value.

Options trading is one of the riskiest types of leverage trading. A trader could potentially lose an unlimited amount of money if they sell a call option and the underlying stock price skyrockets in value.

If the option seller exercises the trade, the trader will have to purchase the associated amount of the underlying security to sell to the option seller. If the security has gone up a significant amount this could cost millions of dollars or more.

Recommended: Options Trading 101

Leverage Trading Terms to Know

There are several key terms to know in order to fully understand leverage trading.

Account balance: The total amount of funds in a trader’s account that are not currently in trades.

Buying power: This is the total amount a trader has available to enter into leverage trades, including both their own capital and the amount they can borrow.

Coverage: The ratio of the amount of funds currently in leveraged trades in one’s account to the net balance in their account.

Margin Requirement: This is the amount of funds a broker requires a trader to have in their margin account when entering into leverage trades. If a trader incurs losses, those funds will be used to cover them. Traders can also use securities they hold in their account to cover losses. Margin requirement is often a percentage. For example, at a leverage amount of 100:1, the margin requirement is 1%.

Margin call: If a trader’s account balance falls below the margin requirement, the broker will issue a margin call. This is a warning telling the trader they have to either add more funds to their account or close out some of their positions to meet the minimum margin requirement. The broker does this to make sure the trader has sufficient funds in their account to cover potential losses.

Used margin: When an investor enters into trades, some of their account balance is held by the broker as collateral in case it needs to be used to cover losses. That amount will only be available for the trader to use after they close out some of their positions.

Usable margin: This is the money in one’s account that is currently available to put into new trades.

Open position: When a trader is currently holding an asset they are in an open position. For instance, if a trader owns 100 shares of XYZ stock, they have an open position on the stock until they sell it.

Close position: The total value of an investment at the time the trader closes it out.

Stop-loss: Traders can set a price at which their asset will automatically be sold in order to prevent further losses if its value is decreasing. This is very useful if a trader wants to hold positions overnight or if a stock is very volatile.

Pros and Cons of Leveraged Trading

On the surface, leverage can sound like a powerful tool for investors — which it can be. But it’s a tool that can cut both ways: Leverage can add to buying power and potentially increase returns, but it can also magnify losses, and put an investor in the hole.

Pros of Leverage

Cons of Leverage

Increases buying power Leverage funds must be repaid, with interest
Potential to earn higher returns Potential to lose more than your initial investment
Relatively easy to use, if you qualify Investors must meet specific criteria in order to use leverage or open a margin account

Pros

Using leverage can increase your trading power, sometimes to a large degree. It’s important to know the rules, as leverage ratios vary according to the securities you’re trading, the jurisdiction you’re in, and sometimes your broker’s discretion.

If you meet the criteria for using leverage or opening a margin account to trade, it’s relatively easy to access the funds and open bigger positions. Sometimes, placing that bigger bet can pay off with a much higher return than you would have gotten if you invested just the capital you had on hand.

Cons

Just as using leverage can amplify gains, it can amplify losses — in some cases to the point where you lose your initial investment, you must repay the money you borrowed, and you may owe fees and interest on top of that.

For that reason, many brokers require investors to meet certain criteria before they can place leveraged trades.

💡 Quick Tip: When you trade using a margin account, you’re using leverage — i.e. borrowed funds that increase your purchasing power. Remember that whatever you borrow you must repay, with interest.

Tips for Managing the Risks of Leveraged Trading

Experience and skill can help you manage the risk factors inherent in leveraged trades, and a couple of basic protective strategies may help.

Hedge Your Bets

It might be possible to hedge against potential losses by taking an offsetting position to the leverage trade.

Limit Potential Loss of Capital

One rule of thumb suggests that traders limit their loss of capital to no more than 3% of the actual cash portion of the trade. While it’s difficult to know the exact risk level.

Decide Whether Leverage Trading Is Right for You

Although there is potential for significant earnings using leverage trading, there is no guarantee of any earnings, and there is also potential for significant loss. For this reason leverage trading is often said to be best left to experienced traders.

If an investor wants to try leverage trading it’s important for them to assess their financial situation, figure out how much they’re willing to risk, and conduct detailed analysis of the securities they are looking to trade.

Setting up a stop-loss order may help decrease the risk of losses, and traders can also set up a take-profit order to automatically take profits on a position when it reaches a certain amount.

The Takeaway

Leveraged trading is a popular strategy for investors looking to increase their potential profits. By using borrowed funds it’s possible to take much bigger positions, and possibly see bigger wins. But using leverage is very risky, and you can lose more than you have (because the money you borrow has to be repaid in full, plus interest).

If you’re an experienced trader and have the risk tolerance to try out trading on margin, consider enabling a SoFi margin account. With a SoFi margin account, experienced investors can take advantage of more investment opportunities, and potentially increase returns. That said, margin trading is a high-risk endeavor, and using margin loans can amplify losses as well as gains.

Get one of the most competitive margin loan rates with SoFi, 10%*

FAQ

What leverage is good for $100?

If you only wanted to invest a small amount of capital, say $100, you would first need to check the policies at your brokerage about the use of lower amounts. If approved, you might want to use a lower amount of leverage, e.g. 10:1. That means for every $1 of cash you put down, you can get $10 in leverage. So a $100 leverage trade would be worth $1,000.

How much leverage is too high?

Knowing how much you can afford to lose is an important calculation when making leveraged trades. In addition, the amount of leverage available to you will also be restricted by existing regulations or brokerage rules. And remember, if a trade goes south, your broker can liquidate existing assets to cover your losses and any margin.


Photo credit: iStock/ljubaphoto

*Borrow at 10%. Utilizing a margin loan is generally considered more appropriate for experienced investors as there are additional costs and risks associated. It is possible to lose more than your initial investment when using margin. Please see SoFi.com/wealth/assets/documents/brokerage-margin-disclosure-statement.pdf for detailed disclosure information.
SoFi Invest®
INVESTMENTS ARE NOT FDIC INSURED • ARE NOT BANK GUARANTEED • MAY LOSE VALUE
SoFi Invest encompasses two distinct companies, with various products and services offered to investors as described below: Individual customer accounts may be subject to the terms applicable to one or more of these platforms.
1) Automated Investing and advisory services are provided by SoFi Wealth LLC, an SEC-registered investment adviser (“SoFi Wealth“). Brokerage services are provided to SoFi Wealth LLC by SoFi Securities LLC.
2) Active Investing and brokerage services are provided by SoFi Securities LLC, Member FINRA (www.finra.org)/SIPC(www.sipc.org). Clearing and custody of all securities are provided by APEX Clearing Corporation.
For additional disclosures related to the SoFi Invest platforms described above please visit SoFi.com/legal.
Neither the Investment Advisor Representatives of SoFi Wealth, nor the Registered Representatives of SoFi Securities are compensated for the sale of any product or service sold through any SoFi Invest platform.

Options involve risks, including substantial risk of loss and the possibility an investor may lose the entire amount invested in a short period of time. Before an investor begins trading options they should familiarize themselves with the Characteristics and Risks of Standardized Options . Tax considerations with options transactions are unique, investors should consult with their tax advisor to understand the impact to their taxes.
Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs): Investors should carefully consider the information contained in the prospectus, which contains the Fund’s investment objectives, risks, charges, expenses, and other relevant information. You may obtain a prospectus from the Fund company’s website or by email customer service at [email protected]. Please read the prospectus carefully prior to investing.
Shares of ETFs must be bought and sold at market price, which can vary significantly from the Fund’s net asset value (NAV). Investment returns are subject to market volatility and shares may be worth more or less their original value when redeemed. The diversification of an ETF will not protect against loss. An ETF may not achieve its stated investment objective. Rebalancing and other activities within the fund may be subject to tax consequences.


Fund Fees
If you invest in Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) through SoFi Invest (either by buying them yourself or via investing in SoFi Invest’s automated investments, formerly SoFi Wealth), these funds will have their own management fees. These fees are not paid directly by you, but rather by the fund itself. these fees do reduce the fund’s returns. Check out each fund’s prospectus for details. SoFi Invest does not receive sales commissions, 12b-1 fees, or other fees from ETFs for investing such funds on behalf of advisory clients, though if SoFi Invest creates its own funds, it could earn management fees there.
SoFi Invest may waive all, or part of any of these fees, permanently or for a period of time, at its sole discretion for any reason. Fees are subject to change at any time. The current fee schedule will always be available in your Account Documents section of SoFi Invest.


Disclaimer: The projections or other information regarding the likelihood of various investment outcomes are hypothetical in nature, do not reflect actual investment results, and are not guarantees of future results.
Financial Tips & Strategies: The tips provided on this website are of a general nature and do not take into account your specific objectives, financial situation, and needs. You should always consider their appropriateness given your own circumstances.

Investment Risk: Diversification can help reduce some investment risk. It cannot guarantee profit, or fully protect in a down market.

Investing in an Initial Public Offering (IPO) involves substantial risk, including the risk of loss. Further, there are a variety of risk factors to consider when investing in an IPO, including but not limited to, unproven management, significant debt, and lack of operating history. For a comprehensive discussion of these risks please refer to SoFi Securities’ IPO Risk Disclosure Statement. IPOs offered through SoFi Securities are not a recommendation and investors should carefully read the offering prospectus to determine whether an offering is consistent with their investment objectives, risk tolerance, and financial situation.

New offerings generally have high demand and there are a limited number of shares available for distribution to participants. Many customers may not be allocated shares and share allocations may be significantly smaller than the shares requested in the customer’s initial offer (Indication of Interest). For SoFi’s allocation procedures please refer to IPO Allocation Procedures.


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